The Swan-Ganz Catheter is often used in cases such as in myocardial infarction, the assessment of heart diseases, respiratory distress, and many others. In the event of a myocardial infarction, more commonly known as a heart attack, the Swan-Ganz catheter can accurately diagnose the complications in the human body that caused the heart attack. The catheter is normally inserted via a large vein, such as the internal jugular, subclavian or femoral veins. The catheter is then moved to the right atrium of the heart, the right ventricle and finally into the pulmonary artery. The movement of the catheter is monitored usually by the pressure readings from the catheter tip or with a medical imaging device.
The human heart pumps blood through the arteries, which connect to smaller arterioles and then smaller capillaries. In this assignment, we will discuss the arterial blood pressure from several aspects, include definition, normal values for blood pressure, the most important factors affecting it, the mechanism involved in arterial blood pressure regulation, and the relevance between the pressure and the eye. Definition of blood pressure, it’s Normal value, and the factors that determine arterial blood pressure under physiologic conditions. Blood pressure refers to the force exerted by the blood against the inner walls of the blood vessels . This pressure produces when the heart contracts during the heartbeat cycle, which forces blood out
Relations with the diaphragm and heart liver supplement neighboring organs. The base of the liver opens into the hepatic hilum, which is but the entrance area of the omentum (omentum) lower with the portal vein, hepatic artery and hepatic duct outlet. The omentum (omentum) lower (fixed at a protrusion of the lower side omental called tuber) lining the bottom of the grooves of the base of the liver (venous ligament sulcus, groove round ligament) and reaches the rear edge of the bottom face where the peritoneum overlying coating passes the diaphragm and the back wall forming hepatorenal ligament. Ahead of the peritoneum lining the diaphragmatic surface to its upper limit, where jumps take the abdominal surface of the diaphragm. Between the two folds of peritoneum onto the surface of the liver to the diaphragm is comprised bare surface of the liver, an area in which the peritoneum covering the liver capsule.
Deep to the capsule is a network of reticular fibres and fibroblasts which, with the capsule and trabeculae, make up the stroma. Lymph flow through the node is one-way, entering through several afferent vessels on the convex side of the node’s ‘bean shape’ which contain valves opening toward the node’s centre, directing lymph into the node. Lymph then flows through three sinuses, irregular channels containing branching reticular fibres, lymphocytes, and macrophages, first the subcapsular sinus, immediately beneath the capsule, then the trabecular sinuses extending through the cortex parallel to the trabeculae, and then into the medullary sinuses. All sinuses filter the
Thus, the pericardial cavity allows the heart movement to be flexible. The pericardial cavity surrounds the heart totally except at the inlet and outlet of the cardiac vessels, where they form two significant tubes. One of the tubes serves as an interconnection to the inferior and superior vena cava and the pulmonary veins, whereas the other connects the aorta and the pulmonary trunk. Blood Supply and Innervation of the
Section A – Part II Cardiac cycle or heartbeat Blood enters and fills both atriums at the same time. When full the pressure causes the tricuspid and bicuspid valves to open and flows into the ventricles. Contraction (systole) of each atrium now forces any remaining blood into the ventricles. The ventricles now contract (systole) and atriums relax (diastole). The pressure closes the tricuspid and bicuspid valves (causes the first sound of the heart beat).
The aorta begins at the top of the left ventricle, the heart's muscular pumping chamber. The heart pumps blood from the left ventricle into the aorta through the aortic valve. Three leaflets on the aortic valve open and close with each heartbeat to allow one-way flow of blood. The aorta is a tube about a foot long and just over an inch in diameter. The aorta is divided into four sections: • The ascending aorta rises up from the heart and is about 2 inches long.
Our hearts serves as biological pumps responsible for pumping blood through blood vessels to body tissues. The hearts pumps blood by undergoing cycles of contraction (systole) and relaxation (diastole) in what is referred to as cardiac cycles. Each cardiac cycle, therefore, represents one heart bit. The number of heart bits per minute is referred to as the heart rate. The pumping mechanism of the heart is dependent on the pressure differences created in the chambers of the heart following the contraction and relaxation of heart muscles.
ventricular septal defects, pulmonary stenosis, overriding of aorta, right ventricular hypertrophy. Pathophysiology As per normal physiology blood from systemic circulation returns to the right atrium and right ventricles. Due to pulmonary stenosis outflow of blood to the pulmonary circulation is restricted . This results in flow of deoxygenated blood to enter aorta through ventricular septal defects causing right to left shunt. Right ventricular hypertrophy occurs due to the pressure exerted against pulmonary stenosis.