The church had enormous power and was opposed to any socialist reforms. The wealth of the Spanish Catholic Church was resented by many, all middle to leftist movements saw the church as an enemy of change, while all the conservatives saw the church as the very heart of the Spanish civilization. When Manuel Azaña´s liberal government was established in 1931 he brought up a series of anti-clerical measures including the expulsion of Jesuits from Spain, allowance of divorce, the separation of the Church from the State and even stopped religious education in schools. The set of measures against the church brought up by the new government alienated the right wing of Spanish society and led to the foundation of the “Confederación Española de Derechas Autónomas” (CEDA) led by Gil Robles that would come to power in 1933. The church plays a big role on the course of Spanish history and its role in the civil war was crucial to stimulate the start of the rightist comeback.
As a whole, during the Gilded Age “the middle and upper-middle class seemed to be becoming, in part as a result of its wartime experience, less sensitive to the suffering and hardship of the poor” (Ginzberg 207). Subsequently, “[m]iddle-class Protestantism became increasingly defensive of privilege, insensitive to the poor, and harsh towards efforts to change from within” (Ginzberg 207). In fact, “[m]any ministers came to endorse a corporate defense of property and expressed hostility to labor organizing” and it was believed that in no place “did the business spirit find greater favor than in the Protestant church” (Ginzberg 207). Similarly, Carter finds that the Gilded Age “was a time when the gospel of Christ was felt to be in full harmony with the Gospel of Wealth” (Ginzberg 207 fix citation). Had it been religion that shaped the morals of the people during the Gilded Age then the protestant church still would have reflected the same “self giving love seen in Christ” (Latourette 83) that christianity was built on.
The first Ecumenical Council: A dispute over the nature of Christ had started at the time of Constantine and had become critical. The bishop of Alexandria considered God and Christ to be same while Arius did not agree, arguing that Christ and God are not the same substance. Common man became involved in the issue making the situation more critical and finally fights broke out on the streets and issue demanded attention. It was this point of time when Constantine called the first ever ecumenical council that called bishops from all over the World to end the dispute through debates. The council took place at Nicaea and declared Nicene Christianity to be authentic and orthodox in 325 AD.
In Mexico, the primary religion is Roman Catholicism, one of the oldest religious institutions. Protestantism, a newer branch of Christianity, broke away from Catholicism during the Protestant Reformation when some Catholics disagreed with the way the Church was run. Even this religious disagreement dating back to the 16th century reflects the more rebellious atmosphere of California compared to Mexico. Rodriguez writes, “The Catholic—the Mexican— impulse was pushed back, vanquished by comedy; a Protestant conquest.” (17-19) The gritty tone presented in this statement indicates an obvious animosity between Catholicism and Protestantism, an animosity that could easily bleed into his own family. By choosing the Californian lifestyle, Rodriguez is indirectly choosing Protestantism over his family’s religion.
Authors Hallin and Mancini use the term secularization which from what I have read in chapter 10 means how a lot has changed where at one point when Marx, Weber and Durkheim was around everything for the most part had some connection to religion and the church. The term secularization from my observation means the detachment or disconnect from church/religion. Newspapers before the 1950 's in Europe was focused on politics. Then came the rise of newspapers that focuses on gaining mass appeal. These new types of newspapers were heavily funded by advertisers and slowly drove the smaller "partypress" magazines out of business.
Throughout history, religion has played an important role in the lives of the English settlers; many people believed in different religions, and this has caused problems within the New World colonies. Religion was strictly enforced, and punished according to your beliefs. When the English settlers decided to set sail to find refuge from the religious restriction, they were hopeful for a new life. People did not want to stay somewhere where they did not believe in the religion that was practiced, for it was punishable by death. The Colonists suffered many hardships; Britain was a Catholic community at the time, and the settlers that moved to America were Protestant.
Places in the “new world” that were under Spanish rule often were exceedingly religiously intolerant. As the Europeans gained more and more power religiously, Native American religions were silenced. As more settlers came to the new world from Europe, they brought Christianity with them, and Christianity’s popularity from Europe continued on in the new world. European contact with Native Americans deteriorated the Natives’ religions while strengthening the Europeans’
He used to oppose many teachings and sayings of the Roman Catholic Church. His “95 Theses,” which was based on two central beliefs that the Bible is the central religious authority and that humans may reach salvation only by their faith and not by their deeds was to spark the Protestant Reformation. Although these ideas had been presented before, Martin Luther codified them at a moment in history ripe for religious reformation. The Catholic Church was ever after divided, and the Protestantism that soon emerged was shaped by Luther’s ideas. His writings changed the course of religious and cultural history in the West.
These principles are developed based on their insights of the Church’s mission to accentuate several current issues. However, William Byron has categorised and postulated these principles into ten (10) foundational principles which guide the social operations of the Catholic Church. These principles focus the Church’s attention on her authentic and meaningful relationship with humanity as a whole. Renato Cardinal Martino asserts that the Church is an expert in humanity, and anticipating with trust and with active involvement she continues to look towards the “new heavens” and the “new earth” (2 Pet 3:13), which she indicates to every person, in order to help people to live their lives in the dimension of authentic meaning. ‘Gloria Dei vivens homo’: the human person who fully lives his or her dignity gives glory to God, who has given this dignity to men and women.
For examples, one of the biggest changes was religion. Back then, there were many disputes about the Catholic teachings. The two prominent religious figures, who completely impacted the way people view religion, were a German monk named Martin Luther, and a Frenchman named John Calvin. Their understandings of true faith and predestination caused many people to find flaws in the catholic doctrines, which later formed a group called the protestants. As conflicts between the catholics and the protestants became more violent, it affected the English economy.
Prior to 1550, the European continent was dominated by Catholicism and had been for centuries. However, Protestantism first introduced by Martin Luther had begun to make inroads in the Holy Roman Empire and Nordic countries. Despite the growing popularity of these new religions, the majority of monarchs saw religious diversity as a weakness. Instead, most rulers pursued Religious uniformity to ensure political stability and strength. Examples of monarchs attempting to achieve religious university abound from Charles V in the Holy Roman Empire and Spain, to Rome, and to England.