Battle Of Tenochtitlan Analysis

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Battle of Tenochtitlan – Fall of the Aztec Empire The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the historical Battle of Tenochtitlan and apply critical reasoning and battle analysis techniques to assess the utilization of intelligence assets and provide alternate outcomes. Prior to the arrival of the Spaniards in 1519, the mighty Aztec Empire was at the height of its power. From their capital city, Tenochtitlan, the Aztec controlled much of what is now known as Mexico and Central America, ruling an estimated 15 million people. The Aztec palaces were as vast and sophisticated as any of those in Europe and their temples rivaled the Egyptian pyramids. The Aztecs acquired many enemies from their brutal rule over neighboring tribes and city-states.…show more content…
He received intelligence that many tribes feared and resented the ruler Montezuma. Cortes took advantage and made alliances with rival tribes and convinced them to march with him to Tenochtitlan. November 1519, Cortes and his men reached the capital city and were greeted with a procession and gifts from the Emperor. Montezuma believed Cortes to be the return of the Aztec deity Quetzalcoatl, who was prophesied to conquer his people and bring about peace. Other historians claim that Montezuma welcomed Cortes to the city from a position of strength and the gifts offered were a demonstration of power. Outnumbered and fearful of being overrun, Hernan Cortes captured and imprisoned Montezuma in 1520. Cuitlahuac to took over as Emperor retaliated. He led an offensive that drove the Spaniards out Tenochtitlan, Montezuma was killed during the revolt. Deadly small pox brought aboard by the Spanish, severely degraded the Aztec population killing thousands including Cuitlahuac. In 1521 Cortes returned to several thousand tribes to include the Texxocans, Chulca, and Tepanec for a final battle. Cortes and his Spanish force besieged Tenochtitlan cutting off water and food supplies. Despite a fierce resistance the city fell August 1521, more than 200,000 people died in the struggle ( Staff,…show more content…
The most obvious is the shier size and composition difference. The Aztec force stood 300,000 warriors versus 700 Spanish infantrymen, 86 cavalrymen, and 118 crossbowmen were comprised of volunteers and adventurers, and over 50,000 Native Americans allied forces (Davis, 1999, p. xx). Aztec obsidian clubs and bows and arrows proved no match for the emerging technology armored infantrymen and cavalry of the Europeans. By doctrine the Aztec operated under centralized control, leaving the unit without guidance if a commander should go down as opposed to the flexible Spanish decentralized command and control allowing for formations to regroup and sustain fighting. The majority of interpretations of the Spanish Conquest of Aztecs claim Spanish victory due to Military Information Support Operations (MISO) by deceiving the Aztecs to believing Cortes was a god. Other individuals might claim that there was a significant technological advantage. In fact Cortes’ infantrymen supported by the cavalry and allies out maneuvered the once dominating Aztecs. Their tight armored formations conducted operations in phases. Phase 1 move into contact, Phase 2 force Aztec formation to present vulnerable flanks, Phase 3 Spanish cavalry persistently charge Aztec formations, distributing their ranks, Phase 4 pursue fleeing Aztecs supported by allied forces. The final Battle of Tenochtitlan concluded rather

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