Operation Northwoods was one, in a series of proposals, by John F. Kennedy 's Joint Chiefs of Staff for the creation of a False Flag Operation against Fidel Castro 's government with the objective of destabilizing Cuba through the application of U.S. military forces. The proposal, approved under the authority of Joint Chiefs Chairman Lyman Lemnitzer, detailed several ideas to destabilize the Cuban Government to include the perception of an attack by Cuban Nationals against US forces stationed in Guantanamo. In reality, the attack would have been manufactured by covert US forces and would utilize the services of anti-Castro Cuban exiles as Cuban agitators (Davis, 2006) (Meeting with president, 1962). In 1962, the spread of Communism was
President Lyndon B. Johnson established the Warren Commission on November 29, 1963 to investigate the assassination of John F. Kennedy that evoked stunned reactions nationwide. More than two thousand books have been written on this topic in which a number of scholars have criticized the investigation of the crime and the Warren Commission Report. The two sources that will be evaluated in this paper are Case Closed: Lee Harvey Oswald and the Assassination of JFK by Gerald Posner (1993) and Breach of Trust: How the Warren Commission Failed the Nation and Why by Gerald McKnight (2005). The origin of Case Closed is 1993 and its author, Gerald Posner, is an American investigative journalist, author of twelve books, and former Wall Street lawyer.
In January of 1959, Fidel Castro came to power. The United States’ attempted to overthrow Castro with the Bay of Pigs Invasion, a CIA operation to overthrow Fidel Castro by landing 1200 disgruntled Cuban exiles in the Bay of Pigs. The attempt fails miserably and is a huge embarrassment for Kennedy, who then vows to bring down Castro. After the failed Bay of Pigs Invasion, Castro looked to the Soviet Union for protection. According to document D in 1962 “The soviets began shipping 40,000 troops, 60 missiles and 158 nuclear warheads to communist Cuba.” However, U.S spy planes soon identified evidence of the nuclear missile sites being rapidly installed in Cuba. As a result, the U.S quarantined (set a zone around) Cuba where ships carrying weapons could not go. If Cuba had missiles, they could threaten other countries and make them submit to Cuba which would result in them becoming communist. Numerous Soviet transports stopped dead in the water just outside the quarantine line. In April 1963, the United States and the Soviet Union came to an agreement. Soviets withdrew their missiles from Cuba and the U.s removed their missiles from Turkey. This tactic of containment through blockades/quarantines was highly effective because as a result of the quarantine, there were no more missiles in Cuba so they could not take over other countries and spread
Imagine if you lived in a place where you had no freedom, and you were ruled by a man like Joseph Stalin. That is what it would be like in many countries if it weren’t for the United States’ policy of containment. During the Cold War, the Soviet Union wanted to take over other countries and make them have the government system of Communism. The United States didn’t like that, because they thought their governmental system of Democracy was better. As a result, the U.S. adopted a policy of “Containment”. Stopping the spread of Communism through military and nonmilitary ways.
In the past the United States is known for its notorious habit to take other people’s land. A particular case is Cuba. Cuba was apart of Spain but the United states wanted to capture Cuba and help them gain independence. The action that took place with Panama after a long war and a struggling government the United states also lended a hand to Panama and tried to build the canal. Lending a hand isn’t a problem but when you are trying to take over the country it then becomes a problem. Another action the U.S attempted to take over Panama was to justify it with the Monroe Doctrine. The Monroe Doctrine was a United States policy that was meant to oppose european colonialism and that the U.S would handle the western hemisphere affairs. Despite the
As America climbed the ranks to become an imperial powerhouse, conflicts with Spain arose. Many factors contributed to the inevitable war that broke out in 1898; five key causes are believed to have initiated the Spanish-American War, more so than others. America saw the Cuban people as harshly governed, and wished to aid them in their time of need. Journalism infamous for stirring controversy and creating conflict was convincing Americans that their enemy was irrefutably the Spanish. Cuba’s location in the Pacific was glowing with opportunities for not only business, but also strategic military. The final of the five was the unexpected eradication of the USS Maine, an American battleship, blamed on the Spanish. This medley of conflict erupted into war with the Spanish, speculated to have ended with five core results: the gain of Puerto Rico, Guam, and purchase of the Philippines; the evental annexation of the Philippines; the annexation of the Hawaiian Islands; the assembly of the Panama Canal; and the rise to a world-power status. This was undoubtedly, one of the most impactful wars America has fought.
The Vietnam war is known as the longest war in the U.S. history. It was situated in Vietnam, a country located in the southeast of China, during the cold war. Vietnam was a French colony and like in most colonies, the natives (Vietnamese people) were not treated right; Ho Chi Minh, that later became north Vietnam leader, asked for help to western countries, which was denied. The Soviet Union offered to help Vietnam, however, in order to do so they had to become communists, the country was divided into North Vietnam (communist) and south Vietnam (democratic), eventually North Vietnam wanted to take over South Vietnam. The U.S. got involved in Vietnam to keep communism from spreading, thus the country was divided because not all Americans agreed with the participation in this war, and the division between Americans made the U.S. foreign policies to change.
During the Cold War, the Cuban Missile Crisis took place. It was when two superpowers were close to causing a nuclear war. Its main origin was when the United States invaded Cuba, on April 10, 1961; which is also known as the Bay of Pigs invasion. After the invasion, previous Prime Minister; Fidel Castro of Cuba, was ‘paranoid’ because he felt like America was planning another attack. So in order to protect his nation, he sought military and economic help from the Soviet Union. Late president Nikita Khrushchev (from USSR), agreed to assist Castro and took immediate action. He installed missiles in Cuba, which the US thought was a threat to the security of their nation. In summary, I think that this was a defensive move by the Cubans.
America had a rapid urbanization which was results of the rapid industrialism. We had vast amount of industries and had the need for more resources. To gain more profit, we needed to look outside our country for business. We needed resources from other land to continue our growth. One country we invested for resources was Cuba. Cuba was our main resource for sugar as it had a large sugar production. The textbook states, “American businesses had more than $50 million invested in Cuban sugar, and the American trade with Cuba, a brisk $100 million a year before the rebellion, had dropped to near zero” (Roark 576). With this much money invested in a country, it’s hard to not get involved when a rebellion is breaking out. The causes of this war may be many, however, one thing remains certain Fredrick Jackson Turner and urbanization was a major
Many conspiracies have taken place within government, but none of them have been more serious then JFK assassination. When JFK had fired its director and other agents, the CIA was scared that Kennedy would take down the CIA permently, he believed to be an extremely terrible agency under the government. The shooter, Lee Harvey Oswald, who was in the marines at one point was planted into the biggest CIA camp somewhere in the Asian pacific and had been wanting to attend the CIA. Apparently he was the guy for the job. Many critics say that Lee Harvey Oswald might have been brain washed by the CIA. For most people, the assassination of JFK marks this down as the biggest incident that has changed this country.
The Bay of Pigs Invasion started off as a idea in the CIA and the man responsible for the overseeing of the plans for the Bay of Pigs Invasion was Richard M. Bissell, Jr., the CIA 's Deputy Director for Plans (DDP). He assembled a number of other agents to aid him in the plot these included David Philips, Gerry Droller and E. Howard Hunt.Bissell placed Droller in charge of liaising with
After WWII, there was communism fever in the northern part of the world. This domineering outbreak of communism threatened the US and our capitalist allies. Through the outbreaks, the US took things to drastic measures and did everything in their power to stop communism, causing multiple wars and combat.
All of these operations were carried out to protect America as well as other countries from the spread of communism. However, Kinzer doesn’t make it seem that way. Notably, the book fails to discuss the state of the world. The United States and the Soviet Union were the two biggest forces in the world, were not happy with each other, and both had nuclear missiles. There was a lot of pressure to keep the Soviets as far away from American territory as possible. When the government detected a threat, it acted swiftly as to prevent a bloody war that would destroy the world. The governments put in place in Guatemala, Chile, Iran, and South Vietnam were supposed to prevent the spread of the Soviet Union forces and therefore, protect the United States as a
Cuba became a communist country under the dictatorship of Fidel Castro, the united states did attempt to stop it but they failed. (Doc D) The United States late on discovered that there was a range of nuclear missiles sites in Cuba, the United States responded to this by announcing a quarantine. (Doc D) A quarantine is a place of isolation in which people or even animals are placed after coming from somewhere else, this was usually practiced to stop pesticides and other infections. The United States did this against ships carrying offensive weapons to Cuba. The Soviet began to remove their missiles and the conflict was avoided (Doc D) even though, the united states failed they restored themselves with this move. Cuba was not the only country that was communist, North Korea who was guided by the Soviet Union was also communist in contrast of South Korea who was being guided by the United States. The North Koreans surprised attacked the South, several American Forces were sent to defend the South. (Doc C) Douglas MacArthur, who was the general successfully counterattacked the North and pushed them back to the border of North Korea and communist China. (Doc C) China the decides to join the war pushing UN and US back into the South, the war lasted for several years and ended in 1953 with fifty-thousand Americans dead. (Doc
In an attempt to overthrow Castro and prevent the spread of communism throughout Latin America, Kennedy was forced to implement “a watered down plan inherited from the Eisenhower administration” , which involved using CIA trained Cuban rebels to encourage an anti-Castro uprising which would then appear as an internal uprising. This resulted in what historian Theodore Draper described as a “perfect failure” On April 17th 1961, 1500 rebels landed on the Bahia de Cochinos however invaders were swiftly captured or killed and as Kennedy refused to send in USA troops and cancelled a planned air strike in order to feign lack of American involvement, the plan ended in “total humiliating defeat” . Kennedy was enraged that he had signed what he had seen as an “unworkable plan” and that he had “allowed himself to be swept along by sheer bureaucratic momentum” . Despite this he took full responsibility for the failed operation stating in a news conference on March 21st 1961, that while “victory has a hundred fathers, defeat is an orphan” . The Bay of Pigs ‘damaged US relations with foreign nations enormously” and “encouraged Khrushchev’s adventurism” resulting in increased Cold War tensions that demanded the President’s full