Audience: This paper is written with the intent of addressing an audience consisting of advanced high school students and lower division college students, who are interested in learning what happens to their bodies internally when ibuprofen is consumed. Students should have taken a general chemistry, and biology course as a prerequisite. It is expected that the student have some previous knowledge on nomenclature, spectroscopy, and basic internal organs.
Borrelidin, until recently, has been extracted through common traditional methods. These methods depend on the physicochemical properties of the drug, like size, solubility and polarity. Moreover, full purification using these methods requires multiple steps of separation, concentration and analysis to be achieved. This often yields a low percentage of the drug due to significant loss with other components as well as sample degradation.
The difference in this chemical and physical properties will aid in their separation. Processes like solubility, gravitational filtration and recrystallization will be used to separate the substances present in Panacetin. The melting and boiling point of the substances will help in concluding on which of these compounds will be presented at the end of experiment. Procedure and observation The Panacetin content was weighed approximately 3.0493g and transferred to the Erlenmeyer flask; 75ml of dichloromethane (CH¬2CL2) was added to the content. The dichloromethane (CH2Cl2) dissolved the sucrose, leaving the active unknown agent and aspirin behind.
Across the world abusing prescription drugs causes more deaths than street drugs do combined (“International Statistics”). Prescription drugs are so easy to get ahold of and so easy to get addicted to. The misuse of prescription drugs have gotten out of hand. These drugs can cause unintentional overdoses easily. The misuse of prescription drugs can lead to addiction, affect the health of users in a dramatic way, and even cause death.
Right now in the United States of America, there is a monopoly that exists that involves epinephrine auto-injectors. EpiPen is the United States only supplier of these auto-injectors because other brands have suffered setbacks and failures, patent protection laws, and because there are currently no generic versions of EpiPen in the United States (Johnson). This monopoly was not a problem until Mylan bought Meda AB in 2007 (Paton). “Since Mylan bought the rights to EpiPen in 2007, it has raised the price on 15 separate occasions, bringing the current list price to $608 for a two-pack up from about $50 a pen in 2007” (Mole). This has been a price increase of more than 500%, and this shows that Mylan has been using the monopoly to its advantage.
Every year there are millions of people in the United States who abuse prescription drugs. According to the Internet site Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, in the United States, everyday there are 44 people who die from an overdose of prescription painkillers (1). Over the past few years, ER visits and drug facilitation admissions have increased exceptionally from prescription drug abuse. Prescription drugs are drugs prescribed by a doctor for a patient, and most often are purchased from a pharmacy. Pharmacists prescribe these medications for patients with specific medical conditions. They take serious consideration when determining the types of medication to give. Prescription drugs have many benefits and when used properly by a patient can help
College can become very overwhelming and stressful for most students. Long nights of studying, troublesome exams, and lengthy papers soon begin to weigh down most college students. Staying focused becomes difficult in college and most students turn to taking "smart drugs". The most commonly abused drug amongst college students is Adderall. The generic name for Adderall is amphetamine and dextroamphetamine. Generally, Adderall is used to treat disorders such as narcolepsy and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Amphetamine and dextroamphetamine are central nervous system stimulants that affect chemicals in the brain and nerves that contribute to hyperactivity and impulse control (Drugs.com). According to Martha J. Farah, director at the Center for Cognitive Neuroscience at the University of Pennsylvania, more than 25% of college students on some college campuses have used this study drug in the past year. Adderall changes the amounts of certain natural substances in the human brain. It also is a stimulant, meaning it helps increase your ability to pay attention, stay focused on a specific task or
Violent offenders comprised a large proportion of the prison inmates. Therefore, chlorpromazine, which is an antipsychotic, is always used as a chemical restraint in prison inmates to control their behaviours. However, this ‘solution’ has itself become a problem.
Opioids have been a troubling problem in the United States for many years. In the recent past, since the yearly 2000’s, opioid overdoses have been on a steady incline. With heroin becoming the drug of choice in many cities across the country, overdoses relating to heroin are on the rise. Many states and cities are attempting to reverse the epidemic. Making naloxone, an overdose reversal drug, readily available for emergency responders or even those individuals overdosing, could cause a decrease in overdose related fatalities.
Questionable methods of pain relief have been practiced on this planet since the stone ages. Luckily, modern advancements in medicine have granted us safe and quick options for relieving pain. Analgesics, often referred to as painkillers, are drugs that work by targeting the peripheral and central nervous systems. They are important because they are responsible for alleviating our headaches, body aches, fever, and inflammation. Non-opioid analgesics include acetaminophen and non- steroidal inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) such as aspirin; they are typically used for mild pain. Opioid based analgesics such as morphine and codeine are used for chronic pain. NSAIDs function by inhibiting cyclooxygenase (COX) 1 and 2, which are enzymes that convert
Medication errors are defined as faults in drug prescribing, transcribing, dispensing, monitoring, ordering, and/or administration. These errors have significant potential for injuring or even killing a patient. Discussed below is an article that highlights the dangers of inaccurate drug administration.
The effect of varying gelling agent concentration on viscosity and drug content are reported in Table 5.1 and shown in Figure 5.2 and 5.3 respectively. Table 5.1: Effect of varying Gelling Agent concentration on viscosity and Drug content of Emulgel Batch Code Gelling agent concentration (gm) Viscosity (cp) %
3. Common tests to characterize Nanogels: 3.1In vitro Also known as “test tube experiment” it is a study done outside the living organism. The main aim of preforming this study is to either assess the toxicity, the release behavior and/or the physical property of the drug. In our paper we will be reviewing different articles that conducted in vitro study to assess the properties of nanogels. 3.1.1Toxicity profile assessment: MTT colorimetric assay:
Thermo reversible gels mostly prepared from poloxamers are predominantly used. The suitability of poloxamer gel alone or with the addition of hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC), sodium carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC) or dextran was considered for epidural administration of drugs in vitro. The compact gel depot acted as the rate limiting step and significantly extended the dural permeation of drugs in comparison with control solutions. J. M. Barichello et al. evaluated Pluronic F127 gels, which contained either insulin or insulin-PLGA nanoparticles with conclusion, that these formulations could be used as a controlled delivery system. Likewise, poloxamer gels were tested for intramuscular and subcutaneous administration of human growth hormone or with the aim to develop a long acting single dose injection of