Masselink and Turner (1999) provided a review of the work on tidal effects on beach morphodynamics. These oscillations have a periodic impact on surf-zone and beach processes. The influences of non-tidal surge could result insignificant differences in beach characteristics between the active lower foreshore and the less frequently impacted of upper foreshore (Jackson et al., 2002). Long-term fluctuations in water level can cause net shoreline retreat or progradation (Komar,
Hapuna Beach, Kona: This is among the top beaches of Hawaii that are surrounding the Big Island. These beaches are quite popular among the tourists. This beach is having the fine soft sand that is spread over hundreds of yards making it a fine place to enjoy. The tourists love to spend their time on the beach. In swimming and sunbathing.
Measuring and monitoring the levels of the seafloor requires advanced technology (Goldberg). Marine Geology has a direct correspondence with deep sea drilling operations. Most of the information found is used by oil companies to find optimal drilling locations. There are several different instruments used to find prime drilling locations and the exact information about the subsurface geology. In previous years, there have been numerous different advances to increase the effectiveness in computer software and data transmission to increase the quality of information about the ocean floor.
When megathrusts occur, the water above would be displaced. This cause waves to be created on the surface of the water and they can propagate over long distances. The waves also travel faster and creates larger crest when they encounter shallow waters (lecture 8, slide 13). Therefore, the tsunami wave can reach great heights when it hit the shore. Being close to the shoreline at a subduction zone can be very dangerous if a megathrust occurs.
Sinuosity index The shape and pattern of streams can be easily identified and classified from its planform nature through the visual analysis. Though the planfrom nature of the river can be inferred from the topographical sheets or satellite images, it lacks the scientific background to compare with the standard classification proposed by Schumm (1963) and Rosgen (1994). In order to classify and characterize the shape of the stream, sinuosity index measured from the segment of stream under consideration were used (Schumm, 1963; Leopold and Wolman, 2013). The sinuosity index (SI) is a dimensionless parameter, which can be calculated by ratioing the length of stream segments measured through the streamline to the air (straight line) distance
Both of these categories have their own sub-categories, each with their own advantages and disadvantages. However, subsea completions which are placed on the seafloor to support equipment are not considered to be a part of the offshore structures in generally accepted use of the term (Frieze, 2001). According to John (2014), generally, there are four types of fixed structures and four types of floating structures. Some company may classify some types of floating structures into articulated structure, however such classification is not commonly
All around Mandurah are clean, clear waters for surfing, crabbing, dolphin watching, boating, swimming, fishing and even world-class golfing. This town counts as the fastest growing regional town in Western Australia. The town center is situated around Mandjar Bay and it has a broad esplanade that is lined with restaurants and cafes. There are facilities for picnics and barbeques while people enjoy the environment. If you like you can go crabbing from the town jetty.
Chapter 1 Introduction 1.1 Geography Located 22 km away from the coast of Terengganu lies Redang Island or the locals calls it Pulau Redang. The island’s length is measuring about 7 km long and 6 km wide. Its highest peak is Bukit Besar at 359 metres above sea level. It contains various chains of smaller islands that together with the main island forms the Pulau Redang archipelago. The main island contains most of the resorts and attraction while the rest are majority sightseeing purpose.
It has outstanding tourism resources that can attract tourists to visit the park including the scenic landscape of Mount Tahan which is the highest point of Peninsular Malaysia, the rare flora and fauna in TNP, the six available rivers namely Sungai Tahan, Sungai Tembeling, Sungai Keniam, Sungai Tenor, Sungai Perkai and Sungai Terengganare which are good fishing spots (Harman, 2013). TNP also has the world’s largest canopy walkway as the main attraction to tourists. From the tourism resources in the park, various activities are
This has been used in areas which depend on beach tourism so that the beach is not made unattractive. However, some amount of beach erosion still occurs and maintenance is difficult since they are offshore (Coastal Management, 2015). Soft engineering, the next type of coastal management, refers to ‘the use of ecological principles and practices to reduce erosion and achieve stability and safety of shorelines and rivers while enhancing habitats, aesthetics and saving money’ (Foster, 2010). Soft engineering options are less expensive, more sustainable, long term and have less impact on the environment (Debens, 2009). Beach nourishment is a technique used to reclaim or restore a lost beach or to create a new sandy shoreline.