Meiofaunal communities tend to be found in areas of high wave action, but can be found in both areas. They occur below the sand surface and are generally found further up the shore, towards the high tide mark. Wave action is very important to sandy beaches and along with other processes, help give structure to the sandy beach
If a bar exists, plunging breakers may occur at low tide and become spilling at high tide. High, long period swells usually plunge at both high and low tide. When spilling occurs on a bar, the wave frequently re-forms and plunges onto the beach face. When high waves exist, the bar becomes more pronounced and the beach face becomes flatter. During a period of low waves, the beach face becomes steeper and the bar tends to disappear or become discontinuous.
They explained that these hazards occurred due to reflective beach morphotypes that are sheltered from waves by structures such as rocks or jetties development. Even though wave height is relatively low in these protected locations, the deep inshore water along steep-reflective beach-faces poses a high risk of swimming activities. In the middle and southern regions of the study area, beaches from Peramu (ST 4) to Kuala Pahang (ST 12) exhibits as intermediate and dissipative state during the six respective months. The intermediate and dissipative beaches are usually longer than the reflective beaches, with gentler slope gradient. This may due to the site specific and differential energy forces (lower) that act towards this area at a particular
Consequently the ocean moves landwards or the shoreline recedes. It is generally accepted that the coastline will retreat horizontally 50 to 100 times the vertical sea level rise . Hence, the predicted global sea-level rise would cause a coastal recession of sandy beaches of 4.5 to 88 m by 2100 in many places around the world . The most obvious outcome of sea level rise is the permanent inundation of coastal areas. Over time inundation changes the position of the coastline and drowns natural habitats and human structures.
This problem affected the place located in Brooke’s Point, in the province of Palawan, Philippines. Rising sea water has been occupying a large area of residential land. Soil erodes faster than before due to the powerful and high sea waves especially during extreme weather conditions. Residential land area, areas of human habitation and people live near the coast are at risk during extreme weather conditions. 3.0 Background
During periods with low to moderate wave action, sand moves onshore and a wide high tide dry beach develops. Dry sand blown landwards is trapped by dune vegetation, which slows wind velocities near the surface causing the sand to be deposited, building up the dune over time. During major storms, waves erode the beach and the frontal dune and the eroded sediments are deposited as offshore bar systems. These features protect the beach by breaking waves offshore and thereby dissipating excess wave energy. The dunes thus act as sand reserves that protect the hinterland from the forces of the
Coastal Management Coastal Management is the understanding of physical/natural processes that impact coastlands (such as erosion, transportation, and deposition), and the application of this knowledge for the sustainable preservation of these coastal zones. It is aimed at protecting our coastline from erosion and preserving the natural ecosystems within and around these coastal zones. The protection/management of coastlands is important because they are naturally flood prone areas which tend to be densely populated and possess economic potential to agriculture, tourism and other industries (“Internet Geography”, n.d). The erosion of coastlines can also lead to the receding of cliffs and the degradation of beach materials. General objectives
Surfing Surfing, is a surface water sport where the surfer has to catch a wave and then ride it, usually towards the shore. Surfing waves are found mostly in oceans but they can also be found in lakes or in rivers in the form of standing wave or tidal bore. There are however also artificial waves that surfers can ride such as waves from boats or even artificial wave pools. Surfing is the general term for riding a wave and there are therefore a lot of ways to surf. In this essay we will be focusing on stand up surfing which is the most common type of surfing.
A waxy coating on the leaves of some mangrove species seals in water and minimizes evaporation. Small hairs on the leaves of other species deflect wind and sunlight, which reduces water loss through the tiny openings where gases enter and exit during photosynthesis. On some mangroves species, these tiny openings are below the leaf 's surface, away from the drying wind and sun. - Breathe in a variety of ways: Some mangroves grow pencil-like roots that stick up out of the dense, wet ground like snorkels. These breathing tubes, called pneumatophores, allow mangroves to cope with daily flooding by the tides.