Predisposing factor: “any characteristics of a person or population that motivates behavior prior to the occurrence of the behavior”; enabling factor: “any characteristics of the environment that facilitates action and any skill or resource required to attain a specific behavior.” Reinforcing factor: “any reward or punishment following or anticipated as a consequence of a behavior, serving to strengthen the motivation for or against the behavior.” The Nine Phases of the PRECEDE-PROCEED Model Phase 5: Administrative assessment: “an analysis of the policies, resources, and circumstances prevailing in an organization to facilitate or hinder the development of the health promotion program.” Phase 6: Implementation: “the act of converting program objectives into actions through policy changes, regulation, and organization.” Phase 7: Process evaluation: “the assessment of policies, materials, personnel, performance, quality of practice or services, and other inputs and implementation experiences.” Phase 8: Impact evaluation: “the assessment of program effects on intermediate objectives including changes in predisposing, enabling, and reinforcing factors, as well as behavioral and environmental changes.” Phase 9: Outcome evaluation: an “assessment of the effects of a program on its ultimate objectives, including
As discussed above, primary prevention is to prevent a disease before it occurs. Encourage parents to have their children vaccinated, encourage others to alter their unsafe lifestyle choices that can lead to diseases (e.g. smoking cessation to prevent diseases and cancer). Legislation mandated safety laws such as using seatbelts while driving and wearing helmets while riding motorcycles. As for secondary prevention, during this level, the goal is to reduce the adversely impacts of the disease that has already occurred by slowing or halting the progression of the disease or injury.
For example Challenging behaviour Learning disabilities Analyse the use of strategies to support service users with specific communication needs For example Alzheimer’s Dementia Explain how the communication process is influenced by values and cultural factors Explain how legislation, charters and codes of practice impact on the communication processes in health and social care Pick different sets of legislation and explain how each Law – group of laws Charters - for example CQC - Voices into Action Department of Health Information charter Codes of practice Health and care professions council standards of proficiency for social workers Nursing and midwifery code of conduct Caldicott principles Organisational codes of practice For example whistleblowing Complaints Record keeping Health and safety (fire safety) Always putting the service user at the centre For example Children act 1989 – All children are entitled to an advocate – gets a voice All children get a befriender, independent visitor Wishes and feelings are respected by people Looked after children Welfare checklist Parental responsibility Disclosure of information UNCRC – united nations convention on the rights of a
Greater understanding of health care practices and health care practitioners can bridge communication between the two worlds. Being respectful and education centered around the cultural needs is essential to patient's wellness and nursing care. Identification of patients perception of pain and illness is crucial in developing an understanding of cultural relationship between spiritual and medicinal care (Purnell, 2002). High-Risk Behaviors Although we may see some activities as high risk behaviors in the yup’ik culture maybe a daily occurence. Therefore addressing high-risk behavior in a nonjudgmental way and express the importance of abstaining from these activities during treatment if related to the possible interactions with medications for example drinking or hunting (Napoleon, 1996, pp
Population health is a field which includes health outcomes, patterns of health determinants and policies and interventions that link these two (Kindig & Stoddart, 2003). More recently, the National Academy of Medicine defined population health as an approach that treats the population as a whole (including the environmental and community contexts) as the patient (NACNEP, 2016). Allied health professionals relate to population health through the understanding of the increased demand to serve the population rather than only the individual. The three most critical areas to better serve the health of the population as allied health professionals include 1) viewing the population’s health as a whole, versus as individuals, 2) to emphasize the need to practice quality improvement and patient safety in all instances when a medical decision is made, and 3) take into consideration all sub-populations when judging the health of an entire population. To shift from individual patient care, based on active symptoms, is the current practice of most healthcare professionals.
The first was that of acting on behalf of the patient which implies the nurse represent patients who are unable to or those that feel they are unable to represent themselves. The second attribute is protecting patients which entails actions that promote the respect of the patients. Lastly, intervene in the provision of healthcare. This attribute regards nurses addressing inequalities in healthcare and services. These attributes parallel the attributes identified by Baldwin (2003) in a concept analysis discussing patient advocacy.
According to the World Health Organization (2004) “Patient safety is the absence of preventable harm to a patient during the process of healthcare”. It highlights the importance of safety in healthcare through the avoidance, curtailment, reporting and investigation of medical errors that often lead to adverse effects. An adverse effect can be said to be an injury which result from or is contributed to by medical management thereby prolonging hospitalization, treatment, monitoring and resulting in disability at the time of care and/or discharge. In healthcare, human error can be considered in two ways: the system and the person approach. The person approach focuses on procedural violations and fallacy of nurses, doctors, pharmacist and all
Health promotion in the health care services is therefore one of the key methods through which individuals can employ persuasive methodologies alongside personal one-to-one counselling from individuals which health to alter the behaviours, knowledge and attitudes of individuals towards the health choices they make. 1.1
The purpose of accreditation is to make sure quality of care at health structures meets minimal standards as set by accrediting boards like the Joint Commission, The National Committee for Quality Assurance and, The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. The National Committee for Quality Assurance (NCQA) is a national not-for-profit organization that accredits managed care organizations (MCOs). The most prominent MCOs are the Health Maintenance Organization (HMO) and Preferred Provider Organization (PPO). Through a voluntary accreditation process NCQA’s goal is to improve quality of healthcare and, MCOs seeking accreditation are
Issues within the Health Care Organization Institutional Affiliation Date The health care organization should be able to provide reliable health facilities to encourage public health or all persons. The credentials that are required have notable differences when it comes to their relation to the health care facilities are often governed by institutions or organizations which subject these health care facilities to standard tests to ensure they are better equipped and are recognized to handle health care issues. Licensure is the time-limited permission that a government organization grants for an individual to engage in the occupation after meeting the standardized criteria required by the agency. Some health care facilities are also
What are they doing to make sure that the customers will keep coming back? How would they describe the medical health plan and the health care quality being provided? • Do you believe that the evolution of MCOs and consumer-driven health plans (CDHPs) has affected the healthcare environment today by integrating the financing and delivery of healthcare services? If yes, how? I do not believe that the evolution of the MCOs and consumer-driven health plans has affected the healthcare environment today by integrating the delivery and financing of the healthcare services (Peloso, 2002).
This has been reflected in the new Public Health Act in BC, which allows authorities the power to establish directives and regulations for individuals when delivering a public health function (under Section 63). The act attempts to balance the autonomy of individuals and the right action for the public good.  In this case, the fine line between the workers’ individual right and freedom and protection of public health has yet to be explored and defined. It appears that the policy was on the reasonable ground that flu shot mandatory protect HCW and patients’ safety from getting flu. I believe that the key issue is to attain evidence-based study to ensure the vaccine safety and effectiveness for both HCW and patients.
Security should always be required when accessing patient records. Data use agreements and connections between HIE organizations are also a concern with health information exchange. “The types of healthcare partners that are needed is a challenge when determining the trading area needed for a viable HIE” (PHII, 2005). Although there are challenges, there are opportunities with implementing a health information exchange system. One opportunity is HIE can improve reporting to public health and in return improve the health of the community.
Make and keep your major health decisions with advance health care directives. While they vary by state, advance directives can carry significant importance, especially as one gets older and increasingly concerned with health care and end-of-life decisions. Typically, two basic advance directives can cover a patient’s needs: the durable power of attorney for health care and the living will. Both serve the purpose of empowering the individual concerning personal health care in the case of incapacitation by illness or injury. The living will protects a person’s predetermined choices relating to how their physician carries out their health care or end-of-life care in the event that they become unconscious or mentally incapable.