The reaction mixture contained 100 µl of each of the extract solution in separate tubes (1 mg/ml) to which was added 0.5 ml of Folin-Ciocalteu phenol reagent, 1.5 ml of 20% (w/v) sodium carbonate and 10 ml of distilled water. After 2h of reaction at ambient temperature, the absorbance was measured at 765 nm and used to calculate the phenolic contents, using gallic acid as a standard. All experiments were performed thrice and the results were averaged and reported in the form of mean ± S.D.Then the total phenolic contents were expressed in term of gallic acid equivalents (mg GAE/g dry extract)
The mixture was finally made upto 5 mL with distilled water and placed in hot water bath at 95ºC for 1 h. After cooling, 1 mL of distilled water and 5 mL of the mixture of n-butanol and pyridine (15:1, v/v) was added. The mixture was vortexed and after centrifugation at 4000 rpm for 10 minutes, the absorbance of the organic layer (upper layer) was measured in UV-Vis spectrophotometer (Shimatzu) at 532 nm against blank using distilled water. TBA when allowed to react with MDA aerobically formed a colored complex [MDA-(TBA) 2 complex] which was measured with spectrophotometer. MDA concentration (measured as TBARS) was calculated as
For TLC profiling, 4 TLC plates were prepared for the testing of each solvent. As shown in Figure 1, the green food dye was placed at the bottom center, specifically 0.5 cm away from the bottom of the plate, with the use of a capillary tube. Each one of the silica plates were then vertically placed in a small beaker with its inside surrounded by a filter paper saturated with the solvent to be tested and a small amount of the same solvent at the bottom. The TLC plate was then taken out when the rising solvent was about to reach the top of plate. The ammonia: 1-butanol solvent was tested 7 times due to some personal
25 mL of a 1 M phenyl magnesium bromide in tetrahydrofuran was dispensed into the beaker by using a syringe. The resulting mixture was stirred for about 15 minutes when the purple color turned into a brown color permanently. It was then extracted first with 20 mL of dichloromethane and the bottom DCM layer containing the product was reextracted with 10 mL of dichloromethane. The final bottom layer was retained and dried with MgSO4. The drying agent was discarded when the mixture was filtered.
0.5 grams of NaCl was added, stirred and filtered. The residue was washed with 2M HCl until the volume of the filtrate became 6mL. 1mL of the filtrate was tested with 2-3 drops of Mayer’s reagent, Wagner’s reagent and Draggendorrf’s reagent. The relative amount of precipitation was observed: (+ Slight turbidity), (++ Definite turbidity), (+++ Heavy turbidity). 3.2 Alkaloidal Analysis
Woroszylo, Burgan and Koch, and Thatcher used different scales of measurement to determine the importance of chocolate chip ratings. Woroszylo used a 5-point Likert scale to measure taste characteristics (1= very bad and 5= very good) and a 5-point Likert scale to measure the importance of taste characteristics (1 = unimportant and 5 = important). Thatcher measured taste and overall liking on a 5-point Likert scale (1 = dislike and 5 = excellent) and a 5-point Likert scale to measure importance of taste characteristics (1= very low importance and 5 = very high importance). Burgan and Koch measured taste characteristics on a 5-point Likert scale (1 = disgusting and 5 =
The chemical changes were analyzed by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectrophotometer (Model 8400S, Shimadzu) equipped with Interferometer to eliminate the effect of H2O and CO2 in the surrounding atmosphere. Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) content of the biodiesel sample was determined with a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) (Model QP2010 Plus, Shimadzu) equipped with flame ionization detector (FID) and an Rtx-5MS column (0.25 mm ID and 30 m long, Restek). The fatty acids were identified by comparing the retention times with those of standard fatty acids. Their composition was calculated based on the corresponding peak areas in the
The mixture was heated at 110 ºC and for 7 h. The mixture was washed with the water and was dried by using anhydrous sodium sulphate . Synthesis of oleyl 9,(12)-oleoyloxy-10,(13)-oleioxyoctadecanoate (OLOLOODT) (5) OLHYOODT 4 (2.5g; 0.003 mol), pyridine (1.66 g; 0.002 mol) and CCl4 (10 mL) were mixed and heated at 60 °C. OLC (16.2 g; 0.013 mol) was adding during 1 h, and the reaction mixture was refluxed for (5.5 h). The mixture was washed with the water and was dried by using anhydrous sodium sulphate . Characterization FTIR and 1H and 13C NMR FTIR of the products was recorded on a Perkin Elmer Spectrum GX spectrophotometer in the range 400-4000 cm-1.
These methods correlate quite well and are based on similar principles of extraction for the determination of total fat content in food samples. This method is based on a digestion using hydrochloric acid and water. The filtered residue is extracted with a proper solvent in a Soxhlet extractor for several hours. After the extraction, the solvent is evaporated and dried. The quantitation of Total Fat is determined by weighing the residue.
Bakery product flavor is traditionally recognized through the integration of universal analytical devices (e.g., Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectroscopy), chemical and physical properties and human sensory panelists (Vulicevic, Abdel-Aal, Mittal, & Lu, 2004; Kihlberg, Johansson, Kohler, & Risvik, 2004; Wang, Zhou, & Isabelle, 2007; Curic et al., 2008; Tong, Zhang, Wu, Tong, Zhang, & Zhang, 2010; Ktenioudaki, & Gallagher, 2012; Chlopicka, Pasko, Gorinstein, Jedryas, & Zagrodzki, 2012; Birch, Petersen & Hansen, 2013). These techniques are expensive and time-consuming. Unlike sensory panels can also collect a lot of information about the attributes of the product but this methodology has some problems such as subjectivity and panelist fatigue. In addition, GC-MS and sensory panel evaluation cannot be used as on-line measurement system in the bakery industry. Currently, quality authentication of the products is one of the main priorities in the bakery industry and as mentioned earlier, aroma and flavor of the product play a determinant role in this field.