This could have impacted the pigments obtained which were then used on the TLC plate. The TLC was not too difficult to read, however, especially when looked at under a UV light. For the yellow column, there were faint bands all the way up to the top band which was located at 3cm, as you can see in figure 1. The green bands were much darker and easier to read. There were more than 5 bands preceding the darkest band which was located 2.3cm above the starting location.
The difference in pH in fructose-glycine of pH5 is negligible but there is a difference in pH in fructose-glycine of pH8. This happens because the fructose sugar degrades more rapidly than the amino acids. At the same time, glycine was moderately lost below pH8. The final value of pH is dependent on the formation and degradation of sugar and amino acid. As the absorbance increase, the pH also increases despite the absence of browning reaction.
Looking at our data fructose was rated as being more intensely sweet most of the time, however there are some points in our data plot that suggest otherwise. The categorical scale for rating sucrose and fructose shows for equal percentages of sucrose and fructose, fructose was rated as sweeter every time. However, when we look at the magnitude scale we see that at 5% concentration fructose and sucrose were rated to be about the same sweetness and at 10% concentration fructose and sucrose had the exact same average sweetness intensity score. Although we have a few point in our data that might suggest that fructose is not necessarily
Much of the mutagenicity of the DBPs is related to the compound 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hy-droxy-2(5H)-furanone (MX) (Kargalioglu et al., 2002). In Massachusetts studies suggest that levels of MX may be considerably higher than previously reported in the United States or Europe (up to 80 ng/l) (Wright et al., 2002). MX was originally identified in pulp-mill effluent ; and later from chlorinated drinking water from a number of samples taken around the world(Richardson
This practice inactivates indigenous oxidizing enzymes, thereby maintaining in the leaves a level of polyphenols that is much higher than those found in Black Tea or Oolong Tea . Green tea polyphenols, collectively known as catechins, comprise 30% -40 % of the extractable solids of dried green tea leaves. They include Epicatechin (EC), Epicatechin gallate (ECG), Epigallocatechin (EGC), and Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), all of which have demonstrable bactericidal activity against various gram positive and gram negative bacteria [14, 15]. Studies performed on the biological activity of GTE and tea polyphenols have implicated catechins to be the main components, possessing anti-microbial, anti-carcinogenic, antioxidant, and chemo-preventive properties [16, 17, 18,
The alkaline phosphatase has a lower enzymatic activity when pH 7 and 7.5 Tris-HCl were used; whereas the enzyme has a higher enzymatic activity when pH 8, 8.5 and 9 Tris-HCl were used, with the enzymatic activity at pH 9 being the highest. This shows that the alkaline phosphatase works optimally at alkaline condition such as pH 9 (Kaslow, n.d). The results of the graph show that alkaline phosphatase work less optimally at lower pH, this may due to at lower pH, the positively-charged amino side chain of the peptide sequence of alkaline phosphatase will release the hydrogen ions, therefore causing the tertiary structure of the enzyme altered, which will causes conformation change in alkaline phosphatase’s active site. Thus, the substrate p-nitrophenyl phosphate will experience some difficulties to bind to the binding site on active site of alkaline phosphatase, therefore decreasing the enzyme activity when pH becomes
They serve the purpose of testing whether the substances should behave as they should. It ensures that the experimental values obtained are cohesive with secondary research and theoretical knowledge, as well as helps to identify the source of error is there is any discrepancy in the experiment. For instance, if an enzyme added to a substrate is expected to turn black in colour, then reacting either the enzyme or substrate with water should yield no colour change indicating that each is functioning properly and only giving a black colour with each other. We can thus refer to the water and either substrate or enzyme as the control experiment. (University of Arizona 2010) Hydrogen Peroxide is a toxic chemical that is a by-product of various cellular reactions that occur in our body.
The in vitro evaluation of these hybrids against D6 and W2 strains of P. falciparum depicted activity in the micromolar range. Also, these hybrids exhibited high selectivity indices and low toxicity against the tested cell lines. Three compounds (7g, 8a and 8b) exhibited better antimalarial activity (IC50 = 0.019 µM to 0.033 µM) than the standard drug chloroquine (IC50 = 0.035 µM) against CQ-sensitive strain, whereas except 7a, 7b, 8c, 9a, 9b and 9e, all the compounds showed better activity than chloroquine against CQ-resistant strain. Some of the compounds showed resistance index value close to one which indicates that the antimalarial activity of these molecular hybrids are comparable between the CQ-sensitive and CQ-resistant strains of P. falciparum and hence suggesting that the CQ-resistance mechanism has little effect on the antimalarial activity of these compounds. Interestingly, all the compounds displayed better activity than pyrimethamine (>19 µM) against the CQ-resistant strain W2.
Simple carbs are sweet tasting but raise blood pressure fast than complex carbs. Complex carbs are formed by longer saccharide chains. Some simple carbohydrates include concentrated fruit juice, cookies, soda, jams and so on. Whereas complex carbs include, oatmeal, whole-grain bread and beans. Interesting Facts A carbohydrate has 4 calories per gram.
There is a significant difference (p-0.009) on the type of the sugar concentrated solution preferred (Table 1). The interactions between treatments indicate that there is significant difference between the 5% and the 30% sugar concentrated solutions preference by ants compared to the 15% and 30% sugar concentrated which is insignificant (Table 2). We therefore can accept the hypothesis that ants prefer high concentrated sugar solution than the less concentrated. In most studies it has been shown that ants prefer sugary foods and according to Went et al. (1972) it is because sugar is in abundance, it is easy to store, provides high energy levels and its ease of digestion.
Being able to identify unknown microbes from systematic testing is what makes the field of microbiology so important, especially in infectious disease control. Using the testing procedure laid out by the microbiology field we are able to identify unknown bacteria present in our everyday lives, and along the way learn a lot about their characteristics that separate them from other types of bacteria. Being able to do this is vital in order for us to understand why microbes are present in certain places, how they are able to grow and what restricts their growth, that way they can be combatted if necessary. These techniques for determining unknowns are also important for isolating and testing infectious disease microbes in order to prevent spreading. Another important aspect of being able to identify unknown microbes is the
Narrowing down the unknown microorganism to gram negative, this approach was helpful to take the next step, in some bacteria the cell wall is surrounded by cell enveloped called capsule, also some bacteria make capsule when faced in a harsh environment to protect them. A capsule stain was preform, the results were analyzed and observed. An additional procedure that was done, was the Fast Actin staining which helps to see if the bacteria contains Mycolic acid in their cell walls, which determines the structure and function of the cytoskeleton in living and fixed cells (Shah). As expected for both E.coli and K. Pnenumia the fast acting results were negative. For both E.coli and K. Pnenumia the Oxidase test was positive a reaction was obtained.