Approximately 2 gm, nearest to 0.1 mg, oven dried cornhusk fibres, were weighed out accurately in weighing bottle and transferred to a 100 ml beaker. 40 ml of cold (10-15˚C) 72% sulphuric acid was added gradually to the fibres in small increments while stirring the mixture and macerating the fibres with a small glass rod. The beaker was kept in a bath at 2 ± 1˚C for dispersion of material. After the specimen was dispersed, beaker was covered with a watch glass and kept in a bath at 20 ± 1˚C for 2 hours. Mixture was stirred frequently to ensure complete
The Bile Esculin agar test has its medium as selective and differential. Black medium shows a positive result for esculin hydrolysis. In the agar, Gram-positive cannot grow in the presence of bile while certain Gram-negative bacteria can hydrolyze esculin with bile present. MR-VP broth contains glucose and peptone. The enteric bacteria will oxidize glucose for ATP, but there are different fermentative pathways that allow glucose to be fermented.
Lemon juice contains skin-lightening qualities due to the presence of vitamin C. • Apply lemon juice with a cotton ball and wash it off after 10 minutes. Repeat the procedure once a day for several weeks. • You can also make a thick paste using 1 tablespoon of lemon juice, pinch of gram flour, 2 tablespoons tomato puree and turmeric powder. Apply the paste and wash it off with water after 15 minutes. Apply the paste three times a week.
The SPM was set to 34oC. Seven test tubes were used in determining the optimal temperature – in the first test tube a solution of 5mM p-Nitrophenol Phosphate with a buffer of pH 8 was used, when the 10 units of enzyme AP was added into the test tube (final volume of 3ml) then the experiment was immediately under way. The test tubes contents were hastily transferred to the cuvette and the put into the SPM, the absorbency readings were recorded every minute for a total of 10 minutes. This haste ensured the enzyme would not have ample time to form product that would have been unaccounted for, thus resulting in skewed readings and a faulty report. When the results for the first test tube were recorded, then the next solution/mixture was prepared. The second test tube was exactly the same as the first, the only difference being that the SPM was this time set to 35oC.
Caffeine is more soluble in dichloromethane (14g/100g) than in water (2g/100g). Caffeine will dissolve in the dichloromethane phase while tannins salts remain in the aqueous phase. Addition of sodium sulphate will act as a drying agent and evaporation of the dichloromethane solution would yield pure caffeine which is white in
The solution losses strength gradually and must be rechecked every week. 1 ml of solution = 1 mg CN (ix) Standard cyanide solution: Dilute 10 ml stock cyanide solution to 1 litre with distilled water, mix and make a second dilution of 10 ml to 100 ml. Prepare fresh solution daily. 1 ml = 1 µg CN (x) Chloramine –T: Dissolve 1 gm chloramine – T in 100 ml distilled water. Prepare fresh solution daily.
To clean the carbon fiber pieces, soak the carbon fiber pieces into 1 M sulfuric acid for 10 minutes. This process can increase its hydrophilic property (oxidizing) and clean other chemicals on its surface. Then dip the carbon fiber pieces into ethanol for 5 minutes in order to clean them
MATERIALS AND METHODS Bacterial strains and culture conditions Two S. aureus strains were used in the present study; S. aureus 8325-4 (SigB-) and SH1000 representing a SigB+.strain. Overnight cultures were grown in Luria Broth (LB) at 37° Cwith shaking at 150 rpm. Exposure to antibiotics was carried out as detailed below. Antibiotics Ciprofloxacin were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich CO. 10 mg/ml stock solution of antibiotic were prepared freshly with 0.1N HCl and stored at -20°C.
They were purchased from a local market in Duba province, Tabuk, Saudi Arabia. The plant seeds were brought to the laboratory and thoroughly washed in distilled water and dried in shade in room temperature then stored in a plastic zip bag in 4°C until use. Plant Extracts Preparation: Plant seeds were finely grinded to powder by using a blender. A total of 20 g from each plant seed powder were weighted in beakers and mixed with 5 ml 95% ethanol for 5 minutes for surface sterilization and left for 10 minutes under Hood to evaporate the traces of alcohol. Preparation of hot water extracts: 20 g from each bark powder was surface sterilized and mixed with 100 ml sterilized water and placed in water path for 90 minutes at 100ºC, and then filtered through 3 layers of sterilized cheese cloth.
The dried roots of Inula racemosa were pulverized and sieved with 100 ~ 200 mesh. The herb powder was placed into a glass bottle. Ultrasound-assisted extraction was carried out in an ultrasonic cleaner RK102H (Bandelin sonorex, Germany). The powder of Inula racemosa was extracted three times under the following conditions: the ratio of material to solvent was 10:1, undergoing ultrasonic treatment 30 minutes at 25 °C, 100 kHz /450 W.31 Before large extraction, a small-scale extraction experiments were carried out: 95% ethanol and ethyl acetate as the extractive solutions was investigated, respectively.
Then carefully measure 25ml of methanol and 25ml of ethyl acetate using a measuring beaker 12. Pour each solvent into its respective labelled mortar 13. Stir each sample for 10 minutes using a stirring rod 14. Leave solutions in the sun for 12 hours, this is to allow for the active ingredients bond with the solvent and form a solution and to allow some of the Methanol and Ethyl acetate to evaporate. 15.
An intracellular blood buffer like hemoglobin is used because it binds well with hydrogen ions and carbon dioxide. The venous blood, or hemoglobin that isn’t saturated with oxygen, is a better buffer than arterial blood. The phosphate buffer system is important because it regulates the pH in the cytosol. Dibasic phosphate and ammonia are considered renal buffers.