Add 2, 3, 4 drops of enzyme catalase solution to test tube 2, 3, 4 respectively and repeat the above procedure for each test tube.
The material needed for this experiment include a 100mL beaker, goggles, test tubes, droppers, filter paper, funnel, watch glass, graduated cylinder, stirring rod, red litmus paper, and gloves.
In this lab I will be exploring how temperature impacts the rate of osmosis by placing pieces of potato of equal size in solutions of different temperatures and observing the change in mass of potato after a given period of time. The change in mass will indicate the rate of osmosis.
Additionally, it was difficult obtaining a piece of rhubarb that was thin and particularly red, therefore the effect could not be best observed in the cells.
The tonoplast in beets, contains a water-soluble red pigment called betacyanin, this pigment is what gives the beetroots is distinctive purpleish red color. The betacyanin is soluble in water and insoluble in lipids. This means that the pigment is contained in the vacuole of the cell while it is healthy. If the consistency or integrity of the membrane is damaged the elements stored in
A more reliable method of testing is to use scientific testing equipment, such as an alcoholmeter or hydrometer. A hydrometer is used during and after the fermentation process to determine the potential alcohol percent of the moonshine, whereas an alcoholmeter is used after the product has been distilled to determine the volume percent or proof.
The cell membrane act as a roadblock for cells. The cell membrane has a very hectic job. It restricts the access to what comes in and what goes out. The bond the membrane shares with others is the idea of accountability. The cell membrane regulates the deoxyribonucleic acid, enzymes, and it builds a pathways for any reaction such as metabolic. When waste products are present the cell membrane gets rid of it and the cell membrane allows important things inside . A great example of what the cell membrane allows in or out is water and oxygen. Specific molecules are only made to enter the cell which is also called semipermeable. Molecules can be passed by active transport or either passive transport. Active transport is when passage of materials using energy. Passive transport is the passage of materials using kinetic energy.
Chemical stress affected the cell membrane of a beet cell, because of the higher amount of ethanol added to the beet. For example, we added 1% ethanol, 25% ethanol, and 50% ethanol to 3 test tubes with 15 mm of beets inside. We left it with no air inside for 30 minutes then tested the absorbance of the ethanol without the beet. The class got roughly 0.273 for the 1% ethanol, 1.205 for the 25% ethanol, and 1.882 for the 50% ethanol concentration. In each solution, the ethanol was a bit redder than the last. In the pre-lab, we read a few paragraphs on the process of the cell membrane and what happens with a beet cell membrane. We now know that beets contain a red pigment called betacyanin, which is located in the vacuoles of the cells. We learned that as long as the cell and the membranes are intact, then the betacyanin will stay in the cells.
The purpose of this lab was to use chemical and physical tests to identify indicators of disease in synthetic urine samples. This lab tested samples for protein levels, glucose levels, and pH levels. In a normally functioning individual, proteins cannot pass through the glomerulus; therefore proteins should not be found in urine. However, in the nephrons of individuals with Bright’s Disease, the glomerulus no longer stops all proteins from entering the urine (Giuseppe et al., 2002, pp. 357–358). Bright’s Disease is characterized by a change in the permeability of the glomerulus, which allows proteins to pass through and since the nephron has no way of reabsorbing proteins they are passed into the urine (Giuseppe et al., 2002,
In this lab we used two processes called Diffusion and Osmosis. Diffusion is the movement of molecules from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration. Diffusion is a process that requires no energy and involves smaller non-polar molecules. In Figure 1 you can see the molecules spreading throughout the glass from the area of high concentration, so that the areas with low concentration are filled evenly as well. The other process was osmosis. Osmosis is the diffusion of water through a membrane from an area of high contraction to an area of low concentration. Osmosis happens in three different environments. Osmosis is like diffusion in it requiring no energy.
Two sources of error may have affected the experiment. Firstly, the experiment required volumes of liquid to be recorded while the vapours were distilling. It was impossible to accurately measure the volume of liquid at any given moment, as the meniscus was moving side to side. Secondly, the distillation was ended while there was still liquid in to round bottom flask. The composition and volume of this liquid were unaccounted for in the calculated
The GC ethanol analysis method described above has a simple concept, its rapid, and extremely accurate, determining ethanol precisely without interference from other beverage components. With this method, it takes only 7 to 8 min to complete a sample analysis for the determination of ethanol content in a beverage sample. Analyst handling is minimized to prevent deviation in results or possible human error. This method requires a gas chromatograph and a digital integrator, both reasonably expensive and sophisticated pieces of equipment.
The aim of the experiment was to test what effects that ethanol solution has on the membrane permeability of B. Vulgaris. The B. Vulgaris samples were approximately 1cm3. They were kept the same size to ensure accurate results. A control test was conducted in distilled water to obtain a result to compare. The ethanol treatments were 40% and 70%. To prepare the solutions a 70% ethanol solution was used to make 40%. This was calculated using the C1V1=C2V2 formula. A photo spectrometer was used to measure, in arbitrary units, the change in membrane permeability of the B. Vulgaris cells. To begin, the B. Vulgaris samples were put into vials containing the distilled water, 40% and 70% Ethanol solutions. As soon as the B. Vulgaris samples were added to the vials a time zero sample was taken from the vials. 3mL of the liquid in each of the vials were added into cuvettes and measured in the spectrophotometer. Before each time point the photo spectrometer was zeroed using a cuvette with 3mL of distilled water. If any of the results were considered unusual the machine was zeroed again and the sample was retested. The results from the spectrophotometer test were recorded in a table. The experiment was repeated six times to gain a sample size of six. This was done to get more accurate results. The first time the experiment was conducted it was tested at three different time points, at zero minutes, fifteen minutes and
It justifies the idea that increasing the concentration of sucrose does in fact speed up the rate of osmosis, an therefore increase the mass of the Visking tube. This happens due to the water molecules moving from a high water concentration to a low water concentration. Another reason why this hypothesis is correct is because sucrose particles are too large to go through the membrane therefore the sucrose does not diffuse into the water. According to the mean graph there is a clear outline that indicates constant acceleration, which justifies that the increase of the independent variable affects the dependent
ABSTRACT: The purpose of the experiments for week 5 and week 6 support each other in the further understanding of enzyme reactions. During week 5, the effects of a substrate and enzyme concentration on enzyme reaction rate was observed. Week 6, the effects of temperature and inhibitor on a reaction rate were monitored. For testing the effects of concentrations, we needed to use the table that was used in week 3, Cells. The 3 concentrations of enzymes were 0.5 ml, 1.0 ml, and 2.0 ml of turnip extract, while the substrate consisted of 0.1ml, 0.2 ml, and 0.4 ml of hydrogen peroxide. In a separate tube, the control was made up of turnip extract and guaiacol, known as the color reagent. This was recorded the absorbance every 20 seconds for 3 minutes.