Its all having own reason and strongly believed in their theory. The four theories that been proposed such as behaviorism, cognitive, social and humanism learning theory. Behaviorism learning theory Behaviorism learning theory is a primary concerned with observable behavior as similar to
He became the chairman of the Department of Psychology at Indiana University before joining the Psychology department at Harvard in 1948. He is known for developing the theory of behaviorism and his many writings on the subject. His research into the learning process lead to the development of operant conditioning. Operant conditioning is when an individual makes an association between a specific behavior and a specific consequence. This process uses positive and negative reinforcement through behavior modification.
He created the cognitive development theory, which he divided into four discontinuous stages: the sensorimotor stage, preoperational stage, the concrete operational stage and the formal stage. The sensorimotor stage, from birth to age two, explains that an infant processes the world around them and learns with their eyes, ears, hands and mouth. This stage is important because motor skills develop from sucking and kicking to chewing and walking. Infants will also master object permanence which will help them in the later stages discover the world around them. The preoperational stage emphasizes the major change in symbolic activity, leading children into make-believe play.
In the cultural development of children, every higher mental function appears twice at two sides. The first is social, interpersonal relationship between minds, and the second is the psychological category within children; all higher mental functions are the internalization of social relationships (Vygotsky, 2004b:388). The psychological development should be understood from historical points instead of abstract points, from its indivisible relations
Cognitive development is a process which enhancing the ability of learning. The cognitive theories emphasize on conscious thoughts which highlight the mental aspects of development such as logic and memory. The primary factors of cognitive theories is the structure and development of the individual’s thought processes and the means of these processes can effort the person’s understanding of the world. Therefore, the cognitive theories study on how this understanding, and the expectations it creates, can affect the individual’s behavior. There are three types of cognitive development theories in human which are Piaget’s Cognitive development theory, Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Cognitive theory and Information-Processing theory.
Cognitive Learning Theory suggests that the different methods regarding learning can be elucidated by scrutinising the mental progressions first. Unsuccessful cognitive processes provide effects in learning complications that can be perceived anytime during the period of an individual. Piaget’s theory Piaget’s theory of cognitive development contains of four stages of intellectual development. The first stage is the sensory motor stage ( birth-2 yrs. ), in this stage child does not know the physical object in existence when out of stage.
Learning theories are conceptual framework describing how information is absorbed, processed, and retained during learning. Cognitive, emotional, and environmental influences, as well as prior experience, all play a part in how understanding, or a world view, is acquired or changed and knowledge and skills retained. Behaviourists look at learning as an aspect of conditioning and will advocate a system of rewards and targets in education. Educators who embrace cognitive theory believe that the definition of learning as a change in behaviour is too narrow and prefer to study the learner rather than their environment and in particular the complexities of human memory. Meaning and Nature: Learning is a key process in human behaviour.
This method of operant conditioning allows a person and or animal to realize when something is being done correctly and that it should be followed in the future. This method is rewarding and allows it to be beneficial for someone. According to a research conducted to treat problem behavior in Atlanta, researchers finalized that “training and treatment analysis showed that treatments based on positive reinforcement were effective at reducing problem behavior. (Call, 2014). This research proves how positive reinforcement can provide a good outcome for future behaviors.
Question 1: According to Wikipedia, child development refers to the human beings changes in biological, psychological and emotional from birth and to the end of adolescence, and from dependency to increasing autonomy. This is a continuous process in conjunction with a predictable sequence, however it may vary and have a unique progression for every child. It does not develop at the same rate and each stage is influenced by the prior types of development. Social-emotional development being described as the process where children learn to interact with others, communicate, express their feelings, and develop their identity and self-esteem. According to Cohen, (2005), social-emotional development involve the child’s experience, expression, and management of emotions and the