Paper 1: BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION Becky Templin Clovis Community College February 17, 2018 Introduction The theory behind behavior modification ethics has a reputation for its accomplishments and disappointments. In addition to this, there are many dangers in using physical punishment as behavior modification with the two primary modifiers of behavior being Classical conditioning and Operant conditioning. The outcome of using negative reinforcement has its share of benefits and downfalls in human behavior whereas; positive reinforcement seems to win over. Then there is the theory of Operant Conditioning of B.F. Skinner and what the public’s view on this theory is and how well it works. Behavior Modification …show more content…
Skinner mastered. Some think that using Operant conditioning with positive and negative punishment and negative reinforcement works better than positive reinforcement. The positive reinforcement has consequences and comes with a rewarding outlook. This is a consequence that causes a behavior to increase. It would work out better if the adult explains to the child what was done and how to fix it than to punish with negative reinforcement. Whether you’re applying positive punishment and removing negative reinforcement, these two methods do not last very long and don’t benefit the child in any way. Behavior has consequences and consequences influence behavior. This is a voluntary response strengthened by positive reinforcement to increase and strengthen behavior. This type of response is more likely to happen. If you want the right thing to happen, reward it with positive measures. Repetition with positive rewards always makes out to be a better influence for a child’s upbringing and how they react to the set goal. I would like to say that Operant Conditioning is a better form of learning because it is strengthened by positive consequences or weakened by a negative consequence. You reward to improve behavior, or you take away or time-out to give them time to think about what they did wrong. Classical Conditioning is a learned conditioning stimulus, like conditioning yourself to study for exams in advance to pass classes. Effective planning for study time results in passing grades and passing your classes. The example taken from our textbook, where the dog is salivating and wagging his tail when he hears the bell, associating the bell to meal time mentioned in our psychology textbook (Feldman, R., 2015). Another good example would be to take a child, and present a bowl filled with grapes. The child gets excited because he knows what’s about to happen. The
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In chapter 7, I found the concept of punishment to be most intriguing. Punishment is a part of operant conditioning which was theorized by B.F. Skinner. Punishment is often confused with negative reinforcement. However, the main difference between the two is: while the goal of reinforcement is to increase the likelihood of a behavior, the primary goal of punishment is to reduce the chances of the behavior it follows. In 1938, Skinner concluded that punishment produces only temporary suppression of behavior but later research found that effects may be permanent.
Behavior therapy was studied by Ivan Pavlov and his famous dog study in which dogs were conditioned to salivate upon hearing a bell. It was later continued to be studied by John Watson who has the famous “Little Albert” study in which an 11-month old infant was conditioned to be scared of fuzzy white things because a rat was paired with a loud noise. The conclusion of the two conditioning experiences was that, behaviors followed by satisfying experiences tend to increase in frequency and behaviors followed by aversive experiences tend to decrease in frequency” (Thoma, 2015). Watson’s assistant Mary Jones, used this principle to clinical applications reasoning that, “if conditioning could be used to induce a phobia, perhaps it could be used to undo a phobia as well” (Thoma, 2015). Thus, behavior therapy was developed and began being used for
Chapter three deals with procedures based in the principles of “respondent conditioning”, also known as Classical or Pavlovian conditioning. Classical conditioning is different than “operant conditioning”, in which a behavior is modified through its consequences, known as a reinforcer or punisher. These behaviors are called operant behaviors or voluntary. However, this chapter focuses on “respondent behavior”.
Through The Psychologist Eye In Lauren Slater’s book, “Opening Skinner’s Box,” we discover in the first three chapters the mysteries behind a few psychological experiments and the discoveries that three profound psychologists have made. Each chapter is about a different psychologist, the first is B.F. Skinner; a behaviorist who designed a process of learning in which behavior is controlled, he called this operant conditioning. Lauren Slater wanted people to know about his experiment, she read his books, talked to friends and family members to unearth the features behind this man. She found that he was a loving father, who could train animals to do unordinary things, like play the piano for an example, through the processes of operant conditioning,
1) What symptoms did Harry have, even in infancy, that would suggest he had problems? The symptoms Harry illustrated was self-abuse. However Some of the self-abusive behaviors that Harry revealed was skin picking until he bled, hitting himself, biting, and smashing his face and nose with his fist or his knees. In Harrys infancy stage his mother had to place mailing tubes over his arms to prevent him from hitting his face with his fist. 2) What ethical concerns about the treatment of Harry might have been troubling to the IRB of the hospital in which he was being treated?
Functionalism and Behaviorism Name: Institutional Affiliation: Functionalism And Behaviorism Introduction Psychology is the study of mind and behavior. Since people have varied perceptions and thoughts with regards to this definition, scholars in the past and present have come up with various classical theories related to psychology, all of which are geared to helping people to better understand the different perspectives of psychology and how it impacts the daily lives of humans (Bjorklund & Pellegrini, 2002). In this paper, I will aim to compare and contrast two major schools of psychology that is functionalism and behaviorism and their impacts in the field of psychology.
Operant conditioning is a condition in which the desired behavior or increasingly closer to the approximations to it are followed by a rewarding or reinforcing stimulus. “The fundamental principle of operant conditioning is that behavior is determined by its consequences. Behavior does not occur as isolated and unrelated events; the consequences that follow the actions of an animal, be they good, bad, or indifferent, will have an effect on the frequency with which those actions are repeated in the future,” (Laule 2). A reinforcement strengthens a response, reinforcement
Introduction Learning enables you as an individual, to gain more knowledge about something which you have never learned about. Learning also has to do with past experiences which are influenced by behavioural changes (Weiten, 2016). There are different types of ways to learn; through, classical conditioning, operant conditioning and observational learning which will be discussed and analysed in the essay. Behaviourism Behaviourism is considered one of the main subjects in psychology and the two main people who founded behaviourism were, Burrhus Frederic Skinner, also known as B.F Skinner and Ivan Pavlov who were famous for the work they did on classical and operant conditioning (Moderato & Presti, 2006). According to Moderato and Presti
In contrast with Classical Conditioning, Skinner introduced Operant Conditioning to conduct research on shaping one’s own behaviors through two kinds of consequences: reinforcement and punishment. Reinforcement is the consequences that increase the chance that the behavior will occur again in the future. Two kinds of reinforcements he identified were positive reinforcement (stimulus that favors the outcome, such as praise) and negative reinforcement (the removal of unpleasant stimulus to increase recurring behavior). Punishment also plays an important role with Operant Conditioning. Punishment is the consequences that decrease the chance that the behavior will occur again.
Skinners experiment was based on operant conditioning, using the concept of discrimination learning, he carried out experiments on animals with the idea that their behaviour is predetermined by their environment and using a well controlled environment would allow him to in turn control their behaviours using a range of triggers. Using reinforcement and expectancy, the animal associates acting out certain behaviours with rewards. (Toates, F., 2010, pp. 165-167) After performing a number of experiments on rats using mazes, he subsequently designed the Skinner box.
Eventually, the previously neutral stimulus comes to evoke the response without the presence of the naturally occurring stimulus. The two elements are then known as the conditioned stimulus and the conditioned response. 2. Operant conditioning Operant conditioning (sometimes referred to as instrumental conditioning) is a method of learning that occurs through rewards and punishments for behavior. Through operant conditioning, an association is made between a behavior and a consequence for that
INTRODUCTION Have you ever thought on how people explain about behaviour? How do we know when learning process has occurred? Learning is permanent change that happened in the way of your behaviour acts, arises from experience one’s had gone through. This kind of learning and experience are beneficial for us to adapt with new environment or surrounding (Surbhi, 2018). The most simple form of learning is conditioning which is divided into two categories which are operant conditioning and classical conditioning.
Nevertheless, Skinner points out that children learn nothing from the punishment. Instead, they may start to work out how to avoid it (Nolan & Raban, 2015). Another concept is classical conditioning (classical behaviorism) that emphasizes on the relation between stimuli and response. This concept embodies in a famous experiment, in which the food is presented to the dog when the bell rings, and the bell becomes a conditioned stimulus for the dog (Nolan & Raban, 2015). Likewise, if children receive toys in the condition that they behave well, then they will probably repeat this behavior to get the toys.
During our developmental stages, we experience different learning processes that result in a range of behaviors. Two of the well known associative learning processes that are continuously studied are Operant Conditioning and Classical Conditioning. In our everyday activities we are constantly experiencing one, if not both learning theories. These theories have played an important role in our medical advancements such as in research and improvement in medicine. Burrhus Fredric Skinner developed operant condition which is process of “learning from the consequences of our behavior through positive or negative reinforcements” (Ayers, 2011, p. 379).