Introduction Learning enables you as an individual, to gain more knowledge about something which you have never learned about. Learning also has to do with past experiences which are influenced by behavioural changes (Weiten, 2016). There are different types of ways to learn; through, classical conditioning, operant conditioning and observational learning which will be discussed and analysed in the essay. Behaviourism Behaviourism is considered one of the main subjects in psychology and the two main people who founded behaviourism were, Burrhus Frederic Skinner, also known as B.F Skinner and Ivan Pavlov who were famous for the work they did on classical and operant conditioning (Moderato & Presti, 2006). According to Moderato and Presti
The Socio-behaviorist theory (behaviorism) Socio-behaviorists often study how children 's experiences model their behaviors (Nolan & Raban, 2015). Behaviorism believes that what matters is not the development itself, but the external factors that shape children 's behaviors (Nolan & Raban, 2015). This theory demonstrates that teachers and mentors dominate and instruct child-related activities, and they decide what children should learn and how to learn (Nolan & Raban, 2015). Reinforcement, which is an essential factor that helps children to learn particular behaviors, generally refers to rewards and punishments (Nolan & Raban, 2015). Children are more likely to repeat actions that result in receiving praise; in contrast, they may ignore or abandon behaviors that make them get punishment.
In contrast with Classical Conditioning, Skinner introduced Operant Conditioning to conduct research on shaping one’s own behaviors through two kinds of consequences: reinforcement and punishment. Reinforcement is the consequences that increase the chance that the behavior will occur again in the future. Two kinds of reinforcements he identified were positive reinforcement (stimulus that favors the outcome, such as praise) and negative reinforcement (the removal of unpleasant stimulus to increase recurring behavior). Punishment also plays an important role with Operant Conditioning. Punishment is the consequences that decrease the chance that the behavior will occur again.
This method of operant conditioning allows a person and or animal to realize when something is being done correctly and that it should be followed in the future. This method is rewarding and allows it to be beneficial for someone. According to a research conducted to treat problem behavior in Atlanta, researchers finalized that “training and treatment analysis showed that treatments based on positive reinforcement were effective at reducing problem behavior. (Call, 2014). This research proves how positive reinforcement can provide a good outcome for future behaviors.
Whilst studying psychology I learnt that operant and classical conditioning can be used to prevent naughty behaviour in children and also to motivate children in showing good behaviour. Positive reinforcement can be used such as rewards or praising children which motivates
Operant conditioning is a type of learning process where the strength of a client’s behavior is modified by reinforcement or punishment. Dr. Foxx’s work with Harry is an example of operant conditioning because of the techniques he used with different levels of consequences, for example time out and physical reinforcements. With that being said Dr. Foxx used Harrys restraints as both positive and negative reinforcements. In addition, some of the examples Dr. Foxx used to work with Harrys problem behavior
Mr. Byrne is having trouble getting his students to listen. He is trying scolding as a punishment, but that is not working. By the end of this essay, Mr. Byrne will learn how use operant conditioning to get his seventh grade students to listen. Mr. Byrne can 't understand why scolding his seventh-grade students for disruptive classroom behaviors makes them unrulier. Mr. Byrne 's can use operant conditioning techniques to reduce disruptive behaviors and increase cooperative behaviors.
Link to reality: Both Skinner’s theory of operant conditioning and Pavlov’s theory of classical conditioning can be used every day in an ECCE setting. Today many school systems and childhood authorities follow Skinner’s and Pavlov’s theory by using the approach of positive reinforcement. This encourages good behaviour in the child making the behaviour more likely to be repeated again as they are rewarded and praised for their efforts in reading, writing and general learning. It is important that children’s efforts in a learning setting are rewarded as this will encourage the child to perform to the best of their ability.
1. B.F. Skinner: Behaviour modification Positive and negative reinforcements or rewards and punishments are used to modify or shape learner’s behaviour. B. F. Skinner’s entire system is based on operant conditioning. The organism is in the process of "operating" on the environment, which in ordinary terms means it is bouncing around its world, doing what it does. During this "operating," the organism encounters a special kind of stimulus, called a reinforcing stimulus, or simply a reinforcer.
In chapter 7, I found the concept of punishment to be most intriguing. Punishment is a part of operant conditioning which was theorized by B.F. Skinner. Punishment is often confused with negative reinforcement. However, the main difference between the two is: while the goal of reinforcement is to increase the likelihood of a behavior, the primary goal of punishment is to reduce the chances of the behavior it follows. In 1938, Skinner concluded that punishment produces only temporary suppression of behavior but later research found that effects may be permanent.
Chapter three deals with procedures based in the principles of “respondent conditioning”, also known as Classical or Pavlovian conditioning. Classical conditioning is different than “operant conditioning”, in which a behavior is modified through its consequences, known as a reinforcer or punisher. These behaviors are called operant behaviors or voluntary. However, this chapter focuses on “respondent behavior”.
Reinforcement and punishment are methods used in operant conditioning and both can be positive and negative but work in a unique way. Positive means you are adding something so you increase a behaviour and negative means you are taking something away so you decrease a particular behaviour. Reinforcement Reinforcement is used to help increase a specific behaviour in the future and if done correctly this behaviour will increase, occurring more frequently as the child develops.
Skinners experiment was based on operant conditioning, using the concept of discrimination learning, he carried out experiments on animals with the idea that their behaviour is predetermined by their environment and using a well controlled environment would allow him to in turn control their behaviours using a range of triggers. Using reinforcement and expectancy, the animal associates acting out certain behaviours with rewards. (Toates, F., 2010, pp. 165-167) After performing a number of experiments on rats using mazes, he subsequently designed the Skinner box.
Behavior therapy was studied by Ivan Pavlov and his famous dog study in which dogs were conditioned to salivate upon hearing a bell. It was later continued to be studied by John Watson who has the famous “Little Albert” study in which an 11-month old infant was conditioned to be scared of fuzzy white things because a rat was paired with a loud noise. The conclusion of the two conditioning experiences was that, behaviors followed by satisfying experiences tend to increase in frequency and behaviors followed by aversive experiences tend to decrease in frequency” (Thoma, 2015). Watson’s assistant Mary Jones, used this principle to clinical applications reasoning that, “if conditioning could be used to induce a phobia, perhaps it could be used to undo a phobia as well” (Thoma, 2015). Thus, behavior therapy was developed and began being used for
Through The Psychologist Eye In Lauren Slater’s book, “Opening Skinner’s Box,” we discover in the first three chapters the mysteries behind a few psychological experiments and the discoveries that three profound psychologists have made. Each chapter is about a different psychologist, the first is B.F. Skinner; a behaviorist who designed a process of learning in which behavior is controlled, he called this operant conditioning. Lauren Slater wanted people to know about his experiment, she read his books, talked to friends and family members to unearth the features behind this man. She found that he was a loving father, who could train animals to do unordinary things, like play the piano for an example, through the processes of operant conditioning,