There are many social and linguistic factors which determine the development of this process. Moreover those factors interact and depend on each other. Even some linguists like B.F Skinner (1957), convinced of the absence of innate skills in the acquisition of a language, developed the Behaviorism theory, attributing the acquisition of the language to environmental factors. Asserting that the acquisition is based on mechanisms like the imitation. With these theories we could assume that the adults’ role has great relevance since a human being can only become human when is raised in a human’s
First language acquisition consist of children learning how to properly develop their oral skills to communicate in their native language. From birth, the child begins to acquire language by hearing adults speaking, although the child cannot fully understand the language, subconsciously the child is acquiring the language. As a child gets older they began to become knowledgeable of the grammatical rules in writing and begin to expand their vocabulary. Second language acquisition consist of child learning another language beside their native language. In some occasions a child is exposed to two languages simultaneously, causing the child to combine some aspects of the language.
Parents help the children develop their first language. In addition, Krashen (1982:10) explains about language acquisition: “The first way language acquisition, a process similar, if not identical, to the way children develop ability in their first language. Language acquisition is a subconscious process; language acquirers are not usually aware of the fact that they are acquiring language, but are only aware of the fact that they are using the language for communication. The result of language acquisition, acquired competence, is also subconscious. We are generally not consciously aware of the rules of the languages we have acquired.
Humans have been using the language for long centuries. It is very important to communicate with each other in daily life, but how do people acquire the language?! Scientists research in this topic for a long time, and define, acquire language in two categories: first-language acquisition that acquires by listening to the sound in the surrounding environment, then begin to imitate them and producing words, and the second-language acquisition learn the elements of a new language such as vocabulary, grammatical structure, and writing. In addition, there are three theories about the second language acquisition, each one of them has a different view.
Language Acquisition “Natural language constitutes one of the most complex aspects of human cognition, yet children already have a good grasp of their native language before they can tie their shoes or ride a bicycle”. ……… said that: The relative simplicity of acqui-sition proposes that when a tyke makes an "estimate" about the structure of dialect on the premise of clearly constrained proof, the tyke has an uncanny propensity to figure right. This firmly proposes there must be a cozy relationship between the components by which the kid secures and forms dialect and the structure. (p)(3) “Language acquisition is the process by which humans acquire the capacity to perceive and comprehend language, as well as to produce and use words and sentences
Second Language Acquisition- A literature review of the critical period hypothesis: are children more prone to learning a second language? The world human beings live in is rising due to an unstoppable tide of technology merging all cultures into one. This requires that individuals learn more than one language to fulfill their vocational and social duties in general. Ever since the beginning of time, individuals used different forms of language to communicate; this has distinguished them from animals, some used drawings, others used letters and finally humanity developed in a way to reach the ultimate idea of language and grammar. Language is one of the major tools of communication amongst human beings; cognitive psychologists thus thrive to
Compare to the time it takes in adults’ language learning, it is widely believed that children acquire their first language at a much higher speed. There have been a lot of researches concerning this topic. For example, White (2003) discussed about the theoretical problem of first language acquisition from the perspective of universal grammar; Krashen (1982) has proposed five hypothesis concerning principles and practices on the topic of second language acquisition. In order to analyze this topic, it is appropriate to start with children’s first language acquisition. By the comparison and analysis first language acquisition process, we may discover the features of language acquisition as well as the factors that affect the process.
(Skinner,1957,as cited in Shaffer,et.al,2002). This theory explains that the language starts on what they see or hear, the children will imitate what they see on their parents or the people around them. The guardian or the parents will reinforce the students and give them punishment so the children or the students will develop themselves. Interactionist Theory . Interactionists argue that language development is both biological and social.
Chomsky’s theory of nativism argues Skinner’s theory of behaviorism, as he believed that a child does not have to be taught a language but there are structures of the brain that control the production of speech. He believed each child is born with ‘Universal Grammar’ and as long as they were in the presence of another producing speech that they too would also begin to acquire language naturally, which provides that Chomsky’s theory, unlike Skinners, is that he believes that language is acquired through nature rather than nurture. He believed that regardless of whether the child was rewarded or not for producing speech they would acquire the language eventually without positive or negative reinforcement from the child’s
Also, the capacity of the language is specific. The ability to acquire the languages or the child's first language is independent of intelligence. The acquisition pattern is comparatively orderly across children, different cultures and different languages. Language is acquired rapidity and easily, and without the instruction benefit. Children usually show creativity in their input which they exhibition to gain and acquire.