"The most remarkable psychological influence on curriculum thinking in science since 1980 has been the constructivist view of learning." (Fensham 1992, p.801) Tobin (1993) noted that as "constructivism has become increasingly popular ... over the last ten years .... iIt represents a paradigm shift in teaching science. "(p.IX) Yeany (1991) also argued that " an unification of thought, research, curriculum development and teacher training now seems to happen under the theme of constructivism. " (p.1) Their views were echoed by the words of Scott, Asoko, Emberton and Driver (1994) "science learning, seen in a constructivist perspective, involves epistemological and conceptual development." (p .219) Constructivism sees learning as a social and
More than that, the education process cannot succeed without the use of the right tools that assist the teacher promoting the enhancement and development of educationally. On the other hand, the Constructivism theory view was that the learner must ask questions, explore, and evaluate what he know in order to build his information and knowledge. Nevertheless, the learning in this theory combined with experience, not by instruction. In my opinion, from the above I learned that they contain educational ways provide better educated if they combined together because each one of them might fit a certain learners or learning environment available species. However, I think it is advisable to apply them in schools and universities.
The most critical factor is the arrangement of stimuli and consequences within the environment Ertmer & Newby (2013) • How Constructivism impacts learning Curriculum- Constructivism calls for the elimination of a standardized curriculum. Instead, it promotes using curricula customized to the students’ prior knowledge. Also, it emphasizes hands-on problem solving. Instruction–Under the theory of constructivism, educators focus on making connections between facts and fostering new understanding in students. Instructors tailor their teaching strategies to student responses and encourage students to analyze, interpret, and predict information.
Constructivism has many varieties such as active learning, discovery learning, and knowledge building, but all versions promote a student's free exploration within a given framework or structure. The teacher acts as a facilitator who encourages students to discover principles for themselves and to construct knowledge by working answering open-ended questions and solving real-world problems. To do this, a teacher should encourage curiosity and discussion among his/her students as well as promoting their autonomy. In scientific areas in the classroom, constructivist teachers provide raw data and physical materials for the students to work with and
Many researches proved the effectiveness of this theory, and one of these studies is that of Tyagi (2013). In his study “Influence of Constructivism in Teaching on Academic Achievement of Primary Students”, the constructivist-based teaching significantly improved the academic achievement of class IV students in comparison with the traditional method of
Thus, the concept of learning as a social process and the constructivist approach would provide students with different points of view on a given topic that would make it easy for them to understand difficult topics. The new approach would help educators develop a curriculum that would ensure all the stakeholders benefit from the learning
Education is centered on themes and concepts and the connections between them, rather than isolated information. Constructivism is first of all a theory of learning based on the idea that knowledge is constructed by the knower based on mental activity. Learners are considered to be active organisms seeking meaning. Constructivism is founded on the premise that, by reflecting on our experiences, we construct our own understanding of the world consciously we live in. Each of us generates our own "rules" and "mental models," which we use to make sense of our experiences.
Motivational theory by Abraham Maslow in 1943 is that human beings are motivated by unsatisfied needs and that convinced lower factors needs can be satisfied. Collaborative Learning by Johnson& Johnson, 1993, p.9) says that this use instructional use of small groups so that students work together to make the most of their own and each other’s learning. A major factor that influences pupil academic performance is the idea that they can achieve. Eggen, Jacobsen, Kauchak (2006) note that teachers assist the internalization process and they do effectively learning activities that encourage a positive, academic and cognitive self-concept. Maria Montessori (1965) says that children learn best when the environment supports their natural longing to acquire skills and knowledge.
Behavioural learning theorists place strong emphasis on the effect changes in the environment has on behaviour, they believe that all students can arrive at the same learning when the environment is perfectly presented (Ertmer & Newby, 2013).. Behaviourists believe that the environment is one of the most important factors claiming it has a significant impact on the individual’s behaviour. Cognitive and Behaviourists are similar in the way they both design learning goals with a clear objective in mind. However behaviourists believe in a teacher centred classroom and cognitive believes in the impact the environment can have on learning opting for a more student focused style of teaching (Yilmaz, 2011). The sociocultural learning theory is unique in this perspective as it opposes teacher instruction that interjects and leads learning towards a predetermined outcome. Instead sociocultural believe learning occurs when the learner is actively and socially involved in their environment and therefore the environment needs to be student centred and foster learning with the goal of deep meaning making (Richardson, 2003).
Constructivism refers to learners who are actively involved in constructing their own information in order to create meaning and understanding for themselves (Gray). Knowledge is constructed from (and shaped by) experience and it is also said that children experience optimal learning when they have constructed knowledge by themselves. Through both the history and geography curriculum there is space for the pursuit of children’s questions. History is a curricular area which is quite demanding of the child 's imagination as they have limited personal experience of living through historical events they are learning about (O 'Sullivan, 2014). The History Curriculum highlights the need for children to engage in 'active exploration and investigation ' in History .