America and Russia had different Aims for Germany. Stalin wanted to destroy Germany, and was stripping East Germany of its wealth. Britain and America wanted to rebuild Germany’s industry in January 1947, they joined their two zones together into Bizonia. This had a big impact on both Sides sphere of influence because the USSR’s way of protecting their sphere of influence is to make Russia more powerful, by stripping Germany from their industrial resources, they are leaving Germany helpless while Russia can expand its industrial dominance. But when America interfered with the USSR’s plans they tried to help Germany by occupying Western Germany, this helped America’s sphere of influence because not only did they have control over germany, but they were able to convert West Germany to become a democratic country.
Did Stalin pursue post-war protection or control of Europe? Was the Cold War a clash of ideologies or a competition for power and benefits? The answers about those questions vary from one opinion and another, however by determining those ideas we can build a clear assumption about how possible was the inevitability of the cold war. In my opinion the cold war was a combination of numerous circumstances, mainly the ideologies and ideas conflict between the declining communism and the raising capitalism in the new world after WW2. This core concern led to other apparent reasons such as the national security against the Soviet expansion.
To examine the Cold War consensus, one must discuss the Cold War. The Cold war was the tension between the United States, standing for capitalism, and the USSR, standing for totalitarianism and socialism, following World War II. Although it was not a physical war between the two superpowers, many proxy wars had came out of it as way to spread or combat communism throughout the Free World. The Free World, as the U.S. came to define it, did not necessarily mean free as countries were being ruled by military regimes and dictatorships, but free from communism(70). During the Cold War, the spread of communism frighted the American People.
The revisionists kept insisting on blaming the American expansionism rather than the Soviet Union’s wish to spread communism into Eastern Europe. There are two levels to the revisionist school of opinion. Level one revisionist historians continue to stress the significance of the individuals concerned in the Cold War. “These argue that after FDR’s death in April 1945, policies towards the Soviet Union became a lot harsher once Truman took office.” (Nye 118). Level two revisionist historians such as William A. Williams, stress on the nature of American capitalism rather than individuals.
Although Truman’s actions and the new ‘policies’ that he introduced were a major factor to the deterioration of America-Soviet relations, it is important to understand the pre-1945 factors that affected these relations. After World War I, European countries adopted an appeasement ideology: The world was horrified by what the war had done to Europe, and a war like that must never happen again, so peace must be protected at all costs. This led to many attempts to preserve peace in Europe, which ultimately failed as Germany invaded Poland and the world realized that another war was about to begin. However, one of the last agreements that the western countries signed with the Nazis might have been the start of the bad Soviet relations with these countries: the Munich agreement. This agreement said that Hitler was free to invade a portion of Czechoslovakia, as long as he went no further.
The Soviet response to the Marshall Plan became known as the Zhdanov Doctrine. This doctrine supposed that American imperialists were trying to conquer the world and end the spread of democracy. It also claimed the Soviet Union’s goals were to eliminate imperialism and support democracy. It was no secret that the Soviet Union was, in fact, attempting to claim all of Europe for mother Russia. Thus sparked a Cold War that would last for decades.
Iron cuter was the phrase coined by Churchill during his speech in Webster university US. The phrase meant the division between two blocks and fear of communist sprees in western Europe as he said in his speech "an attempt is being mad by Russian Berlin to build up a communist part in their zone. So this will cause a serious difficult in Britain and American" . He started his speech by praising US as he said " the US at the time pinnacle of world power". He continues to warn the world about the existence fear escalating over western Europe.
Many Americans did not want to get involved within the war. They thought whatever happens over there does not affect the United States. However, with Hitler planning on attacking and taking over more countries, the U.S. helped the rest of Europe and stopped him. In Roosevelt’s “Four Freedoms” speech, he expresses freedom as something that needs military use and power to be earned. According to Roosevelt, “We must all prepare to make the sacrifices that the emergency- almost as serious as war itself- demands…” (43).
Meanwhile Minh, who used to be a supporter and member of Comintern, developed first problems with Comintern in 1935 when, due to the threat of Fascism a new line of Moscow 's politics became visible. The Soviet Union change of its behavior towards allies, as from 1935 on as all anti-fascist countries were now considered potential allies and ideology was not the first criterium anymore, a method which can be seen as the one Minh was in favor of. As Minh 's first objective was independence for Vietnam he was willing to ally with parties not sharing his political ideology (Communism). However, the policy of neutrality towards the French executed by Moscow only allowed the Communist in Vietnam to realize their Communist ideologies but not to undermine the French powers in any way. This was the result of an agreement between France, Russia and Great Britain against Nazi-Germany which had as its main objective the protection of the european 'collective security '.
Truman in 1947. President Truman said that the United States would go to whatever lengths possible to contain the spread of communism and stop the United States' former ally, the Soviet Union. The doctrine drafted up due to the crises in Greece and Turkey, both, nations were believed were in danger of falling into the Soviet control. The United States and the USSR were alliance during the Second World War, was only to defeat a same enemy the Germans and the Japanese. When the war ended, Stalin became in control of Eastern Europe.