Abstract – Methyl trans-cinnamate is an ester that contributes to the aroma of strawberry. It can be synthesized by an acid-catalyzed Fischer esterification of a methanol and trans-cinnamic acid under reflux. The solution was extracted to obtain the organic product, and evaporated residual solvent The yield was 68%, but there is some conflicting data regarding the purity. The melting point, IR, GC-MS indicate a highly pure desired product whereas 1H NMR shows there are unreacted reagents still present.
In this experiment, 0.95 mL of phosphoric acid, 0.75 mL of 2-methylcyclohexonal, and Drierite are added to a Hickman still. The prepared Hickman still is submerged halfway into a preheated sand bath. The temperature range was kept above 140 ˚C but below 165˚C to prevent the product from evaporating. The product collected in the ring of the Hickman still for about twenty minutes. Once the reaction was complete, the product was transferred into a pre-weighed vial using a slant Pasteur pipette. The percent yield of the recovered product is calculated, and IR spectroscopy and gas chromatography are used to analyze the purity and percent composition of different alkene
Experiment 3 comprised three reactions: formation of dimethyl tetraphenylphthalate, hexaphenylbenzene, and tetraphenylnaphthalene. All 3 reactions used tetraphenylcyclopentadienone as the diene to generate products with high aromatic stabilization.
In this lab, the oxidation of a secondary alcohol was performed and analyzed. An environmentally friendly reagent, sodium hypochlorite, was used to oxidize the alcohol, and an IR spectrum was obtained in order to identify the starting compound and final product. The starting compound could have been one of four alcohols, cyclopentanol, cyclohexanol, 3-heptanol, or 2-heptanol. Since these were the only four initial compounds, the ketone obtained at the end of the experiment could only be one of four products, cyclopentanone, cyclohexanone, 3-heptanone, or 2-heptanone. In order to retrieve one of these ketones, first 1.75g of unknown D was obtained. 1mL of Acetic acid was then added to Unknown D and the solution was stirred. Next, 15mL of sodium
The purpose of this week’s lab was to enhance our understanding of the Grignard reagents that were examined in lecture. In this lab, a Grignard reagent will be prepared through the reaction of magnesium turnings and bromobenzene. Instead of isolating the product it will then be combined with benzophenone, which will give the final product of triphenylmethanol.
In this lab there were five different stations. For the first station we had to determine an unknown mass and the percent difference. To find the unknown mass we set up the equation Fleft*dleft = Fright*dright. We then substituted in the values (26.05 N * 41cm = 34cm * x N) and solved for Fright to get (320.5g). To determine the percent difference we used the formula Abs[((Value 1 - Value 2) / average of 1 & 2) * 100], substituted the values (Abs[((320.5 - 315.8) / ((320.5 + 315.8) / 2)) * 100]) and solved to get (1.58%). For the second station we had to determine the distance required to balance the system and the percent difference. To find the unknown distance we set up the equation Fleft*dleft = Fright*dright. We then plugged in the values (11.35 N * x cm = 48cm *
The purpose of this experiment is to perform a two step reductive amination using o-vanillin with p-toluidine to synthesize an imine derivative. In this experiment, 0.386 g of o-vanillin and 0.276 g of p-toluidine were mixed into an Erlenmeyer flask. The o-vanillin turned from a green powder to orange layer as it mixed with p-toludine, which was originally a white solid. Ethanol was added as a solvent for this reaction. Sodium borohydride was added in slow portion as the reducing agent, dissolving the precipitate into a yellowish lime solution. Glacial acetic acid and acetic anhydride were added to the mixture while refluxing, which converted the lime colored solution into a clear mixture. The flask was cooled in an ice bath and the solution
Stoichiometry is a method used in chemistry that involves using relationships between reactants and products in a chemical reaction, to determine a desired quantitative data. The purpose of the lab was to devise a method to determine the percent composition of NaHCO3 in an unknown mixture of compounds NaHCO3 and Na2CO. Heating the mixture of these two compounds will cause a decomposition reaction. Solid NaHCO3 chemically decomposes into gaseous carbon dioxide and water, via the following reaction: 2NaHCO3(s) Na2CO3(s) + H2O(g) + CO2(g). The decomposition reaction was performed in a crucible and heated with a Bunsen burner. The study of Green Chemistry emphasizes the reduction of hazards to human health and the larger environment, as well as
Yes, the melting point data does make sense. While the melting point range was close to the given temperature range, the data was still a little lower than expected. This may have been caused by impurities in the product, since impurities cause melting point range to decrease. The product was observed moving up the capillary tube during melting point analysis, which indicates that the product was not completely dry before melting point range was taken. The water in the product evaporated and caused the product to be pushed up. It can be hypothesized that the water in the product affected the melting point
Tyrosinases have two coupled enzymatic functions. One is cresolase activity, which catalyzes the hydroxylation of monophenols to form o-diphenols. The other enzymatic function is catecholase activity, which oxidizes o-phenols to produce o-quinones. O-quinones are highly reactive and typically polymerize to form melanin (Kelly, et al., Heng, et al). Tyrosinase is the most important enzyme in the melanin production pathway because it catalyzes the rate-limiting step. Tyrosinase is also thought to have other functions in melanin production (Tuskamoto).
The objective of this experiment was to use an aldol condensation reaction to synthesize 3-nitrochalcone from 3- nitrobenzaldehyde. This was accomplished with a Diels-Alder reaction that utilized 3-nitrobenzaldehyde, acetophenone, ethanol, and sodium hydroxide.