Measurement of lipid peroxidation TBARS, a measure of lipid per oxidation, was measured as described by Ohkawa . Briefly, 1 ml of suspension medium was taken from the 10% tissue homogenate. 0.5 ml of 30% Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) was added to it, followed by 0.5 ml of 0.8% thiobarbituric acid (TBA) reagent. The tubes were covered with aluminium foil and kept in shaking water bath for 30 minutes at 80°C. After 30 minutes, tubes were taken out and kept in ice-cold water for 30 minutes.
Add 10-12 mL glacial acetic acid gradually, so as to precipitate the anthranilic acid . Filter the separated acid, wash with cold water and recrystallize it from hot water. Mechanism: Step III: Preparation of o-chlorobenzoic acid from anthranilic
The sample was transferred to a 250 ml conical flask kept in water bath for alkali treatment. 75 ml of 17.5% caustic soda was measured using a measuring cylinder at 20°C. 15 ml of 17.5% NaOH was added and fibres were macerated gently with a flattened glass rod for 1 minute. 10 ml more NaOH was added and the solution was mixed for 45 seconds. 10 ml NaOH was again added and mixed for 15 seconds to make lump free slurry.
The goal of this lab was to prepare methyl m-nitrobenzoate using electrophilic aromatic substitution using nitration. The reaction used methyl benzoate with the acid catalyst as sulfuric acid. The mechanism for the nitration using methyl benzoate is presented in Figure 1. Figure 1: Benzene can only undergo substitution reactions that are called electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions. Given that benzene rings are used commonly in the production of many organic compounds, the capability to make substitutions to benzene is critical.
5 mL of 3M sodium hydroxide, 5 mL of de-ionized water, and 15 mL of hexane were added to the reaction flask and stirred. The mixture was transferred to a separatory funnel, separated into an organic layer and water layer, and then drained. The water layer was washed twice with 10 mL of hexane. The organic layer was dried
Salicylic acid is obtained by hydrolysing methyl salicylate, an ester under basic conditions. This synthesis takes place through a 2-step organic reaction. It is also referred to as saponification. Saponification is a special type of hydrolysis which converts an ester into an alcohol and a carboxylic acid. The first step (1) of the hydrolysis, involves the addition of NaOH to methyl salicylate.
The hydroxyl group (-OH) of NaOH attacks an electrophilic carbon of >N-C=O which as rearrangement gives carbonial . This carbonial abstract proton from water to give NAG. The established over degradation of NAG to 4-MBA was also obseved in alkali condition. Degradation pathway of AN is shown in Fig.3. The isolated degradation products are subjected to Mass studies to obtain their accurate mass fragment patterns.
One of the reactions you observed resulted in this product: NaCl + H2O + CO2 (g)? What well did this reaction occur in? Describe how the observations for this reaction support your answer. B BoldI ItalicsU Underline Bulleted list Numbered list Superscript Subscript70 Words A reaction I observed in number 1.) Sodium Bicarbonate mixed with Hydrochloric acid.
1 ml = 1 µg CN (x) Chloramine –T: Dissolve 1 gm chloramine – T in 100 ml distilled water. Prepare fresh solution daily. (xi) Pyridine (xii) 1-phenyl–3-methyl– 5-pyrazolone solution: Prepare a saturated aqueous solution (approximately 0.5 gm / 100 ml) by adding the pyrazolone to water at 75 0 C. Agitate occasionally as the solution cools to room temperature. (xiii) Bis–Pyrazolone (3,3-dimethyl-1-diphenyl) (4,4’-bis-2-pyrazolone)-(5,5’
The residual biomass was separated by filtration and washed with distilled water. For alginate extraction, the acidified algal biomass was suspended in 3% Na2CO3 solution at different alkali: alga ratio (20, 40, and 60 mL/g). The different extraction temperatures ranged from 25 to 45º C, and lasted for 1 to 3 h. For each experimental run, sodium alginate was collected by filtration and precipitated with absolute ethanol (1:2 v/v). The mixture was maintained at 4º C overnight. The precipitate was collected by vacuum filtration and allowed to dry at room temperature.