This equates to 88.45MJ of energy using the equation W=Fx. The required energy output of the catapult system must be variable. Smaller, lower mass aircraft will require less force to be exerted by the catapult to reach take-off velocity as compared to heavier aircraft with higher take-off velocities. There is a danger of over stressing the aircraft airframe if the exerted forces are too great and consequently reducing the aircraft lifespan. Steam Catapults Currently, aircraft carriers with catapult launch systems all use steam catapults.
Air density: Increase of altitude means decrease of air density. The range and endurance increases with altitude because the efficiency of jet engine increases. Temperature: Increase of temperature (of air) will reduce efficiency of jet engine, giving increased fuel flow SUMMARY There are a few reasons the commercial airplanes cruise at high altitudes. • The air is less dense at higher altitudes. With less air in the way there is less drag on an airplane.
The pipe is in the form of a venturi it narrows in section and then widens again, causing the airflow to increase in speed in the narrowest part. Below the venturi is a butterfly valve called the throttle valve a rotating disc that can be turned end-on to the airflow, so as to hardly restrict the flow at all, or can be rotated so that it (almost) completely blocks the flow of air. This valve controls the flow of air through the carburetor throat and thus the quantity of air/fuel mixture the system will deliver, thereby regulating engine power and speed. The throttle is connected, usually through a cable or a mechanical linkage of rods and joints or rarely by pneumatic link, to the accelerator pedal on a car or the equivalent control on other vehicles or
Lift is when the wing is getting pushed upwards harder than it is getting pushed downwards. If this is happening, then it means gravity is not as strong on the plane as thrust and lift are. Lift is the starting point and the middle of the flight. If the plane is moving upwards, lift is taking place. When a paper airplane is going down, lift is not taking place.When the air is going under the wings of the plane this is also lift.
This is accomplished with a motor-driven propeller or a jet engine. When the airplane is in level flight at a constant speed, the force of the thrust is just enough to counteract the aerodynamic drag. Moving air can also generate forces in a different direction from the flow. The force that keeps an airplane from falling is called lift. Lift is generated by an aircraft wing.
The Gripen has a delta wing and canard configuration with relaxed stability design and fly-by-wire flight controls. It is powered by the Volvo RM12, and has a top speed of Mach 2. Later aircraft are modified for NATO interoperability standards and to undertake in-flight
2.3 Aerofoil Aerofoil is the cross-sectional of an object that are moved through a fluid such as air, and aerodynamics force created. Aerofoils are employed on aircraft as wings so then it will produce lift or others depending to the blade shape to produce thrust. The two of these forces are perpendicular to the air flow. Drag is a consequence of the production of lift/thrust and acts parallel to the airflow. Other aerofoil surface includes tail-planes, fins, winglets, and helicopter rotor blades.
The mathematical relationship that exists between pressure and volume when temperature and quantity are held constant is that pressure is inversely proportional to volume. This relationship is known as Boyle’s Law. P1 x V1 = P2 x V2. When the volume of a container is decreased, when still containing the same amount of molecules, more molecules will hit the sides of the container, thus increasing the pressure. We were asked to graph pressure and the inverse of volume because the graph of pressure and inverse volume is inversely related to the graph of pressure and volume.
1.0 Introduction 1.1 Research Question, Aim and Hypothesis 1.1.1 Research Question What are the best modifications to increase the launch height of a 1.25L water rocket? 1.1.2 Aim The aim of the experiment was to investigate the effects of changing the air resistance and stability of the rocket and how it affects the rocket’s launch height when the air pressure and water volume is kept controlled. 1.1.3 Hypothesis That by reducing the air resistance with a parabola shaped nose cone and tapered swept fins and increasing stability with the fins by pushing the centre of pressure back behind the centre of mass we would have achieved the greatest launch height that what was believed. 1.2 Justification of Hypothesis Air resistance affects a rockets drag and stability. The amount of air resistance that has effect on a rocket’s velocity primarily depends on the shape of the nose cone.
Besides this, another law of thermodynamics can be seen in the movement of gas particles from a higher temperature reservoir to a lower temperature reservoir. This exemplifies the second law of thermodynamics, which states that the natural flow of heat is always from a higher temperature body to a lower temperature