Sociology is the study of Sociology of education is a field that focuses on two separate levels of analysis. At a macro-level, sociologists work to identify how various social forces, such as politics, economics, culture, etc., creates variation in schools. In other words, what effects do other social institutions have on the educational system? At a micro-level, sociologists look to identify how variation in school practices lead to differences in individual-level student outcomes. That is, when schools have different teaching methods or have different practices.
According to the Oxford dictionary class is “a system of ordering society whereby people are divided into sets based on perceived social or economic status” (OD, 2017). The term class is however, a complicated term which is used in many ways. Different analyses of the term have been done under functionalism and structuralism. Functionalism studies different part of society and their functions. Structuralist theorists are interested in identifying and analysing the structures that underlie all phenomena.
In a similar way, all these forms of alienation can be seen in the school system. For example, tactics used to make schooling efficient include: tracking, labeling, standardized tests, a banking curricula, and the teacher-student power dynamic. Under these tactics, we can identify students being alienated from the
Another study was conducted by Akhtar (2012) entitled ‘Gender Inequality in Teacher Education Programs’. He concluded that causes of inequality in teaching profession are low salary and low social status. He also suggested that there is need to enhance social and economic status of the teachers to ensure the gender equality in TEPs. A study entitled “Evaluating Courses: an examination of the impact of student gender" has been conducted by Darby (2006). The researcher concluded that gender variation is found in programs evaluation and gender variations are based on the type of assessment during the course done by the trainers.
This essay is an effort to discuss why matters or race and racism are more than just the attitudes and behaviours of individuals. I will be discussing what racism is and the different forms of racism and I will explain how racism is socially constructed, furthermore, I will give a brief discussion on the history of racism and also discuss some of the key concepts and perspectives to offer a sociological analysis of the complexities of politics of difference and identity, furthermore, I will show how this applies to schools in the South African context. Race is one of the traits that accompanies a person’s social identity, it contributes to the definition and formation of a person’s social identity. Race can be defined as a person’s physical characteristics such as skin, hair or eye colour, it is one of the factors used to differentiate and categorise people where people can be categorised as black,
This chapter presents the relevant theories, related literature and studies containing concepts, ideas and background information that are connected to the studys theme which were reviewed to attain a clearer perspective and to arrive at an adequate background of the study. Relevant Theory The study will directly anchor into Vygotsky 's socio-constructivist theory (1978) the theory emphasis is in the mental functions that are acquired through social relationship; learning takes when child interacts with peers and adults in a social setting as they act upon the environment; children learn by internalizing activities conducted on the word around them. It suggests that children emulate behaviors and incorporate them into their existing structures
Introduction - While reading various texts that Ann Brown has written I began to see that her opinion was that the goal of social studies educators is to foster the development of effective citizens. But to properly approach this goal, I seen there needs to be a shift from what Dewey called the “traditional” structure of education (Dewey, 1938). In the current or traditional method, one proposed method to change this process is the application of the theory of social constructivism. Social constructivism focuses on the role that social interaction plays in creating knowledge. According to this, model knowledge is formed based on social interaction and social consensus.
They found out that the speaking patterns in the classrooms were highly structured and in describing the speech acts could categorize them into distinctive functions. In addition, the structure for the Sinclair and Coulthard 's model was designed through the application of transcripts taken from primary school classroom settings in the 1970 's. Thus, they developed a model to describe the teacher-student interaction based on a structured system of ranks. The ranking scale of the model included 5 components (in descending order): transaction, exchange, move, act and lesson (Sinclair & Coulthard, 1992). The majority of research on discourse analysis have concentrated on the level of teaching exchanges which is characterized by initiation(I), response (R) and feedback (F).One of the critique is that the model does not properly
His line of reasoning mainly built upon a logical narrative that succeeds in persuading his audience. Robinson claims the fine arts are not placed on the same pedestal as core subjects like mathematics, science, and literature. As such, when the education system receive cuts in spending, the music, art, and dance classes suffer severe hits. Associated with creativity, these classes are viewed as unequal to core subject classes and are neglected so that schools may prioritize subjects deemed as most beneficial for the future. This idea ultimately support’s Robinson’s argument that school are primarily responsible for the decreasing amount of creativity.
What children learn 23 out of school — their capacities, learning abilities, and knowledge base — and bring to school is important to further enhance the learning process. This is all the more critical for children from underprivileged backgrounds, especially girls, as the worlds they inhabit and their realities are under represented in school knowledge. Participatory learning and teaching, emotion and experience need to have a definite and valued place in the classroom. While class participation is a powerful strategy, it loses its pedagogic edge when it is ritualised, or merely becomes an instrument to enable teachers to meet their own ends. True participation starts from the experiences of both students and teachers.