Bernstein And Bourdieu Theory

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The work of two sociologists namely Bernstein and Bourdieu, influenced the work of sociologists in education and linguistics. Bernstein used the term “code theory”. This theory was used to describe how the macro-level (social, political, and economic structures and institutions) is related to the way in which people understand systems of meanings, also known as “codes”. Bourdieu used the term “cultural capital” which will further be discussed. Just like Bernstein, Bourdieu attempted to empirically test a theory of society, culture, and education. Both sociologists used their own theories and related it to “working-class” and “middle-class” students and attempted to discuss how factors such as language for example, can have an affect on social…show more content…
The level at which the speaker (in the case, the child) uses a particular code may be a function of his/her native ability, but the orientation is entirely the sociological constraints that act upon the child. Bernstein (1975) made yet another argument in which he argued that schools transmit two cultures namely: “instrumental” and “expressive” cultures. In the instrumental culture the types of activities involved with the transference of formal school knowledge is when the student is expected to acquire knowledge and specific vocational skills. The expressive culture includes the transference of values and norms. Here students are expected to develop certain kinds of conduct and character. The effects of the instrumental culture could potentially be isolative. In this culture patterns of success and failure are produced and learners are ranked. The effects of the expressive culture includes a potential for creating consensus by unifying students. Both expressive snd instrumental cultures could be useful in a curriculum model in order to understand the classroom…show more content…
The specific focus on change in schools developed in a paper called 'Ritual in Education ' (1971). Here Bernstein showed how instrumental and expressive orders developed through ritual. Expressive orders are maintained through rituals that emphasize unity such as school assemblies, uniforms and school badges. Bernstein started to situate changes in schools within different modalities of control which he calls “stratified” and “differentiated” control. Stratified control is concerned with positional forms of transference which means that the status and hierachy of students is determined by how they are classified. These can include gender, age and perhaps ability. These classifications are based on fixed attributes meaning learners can 't change their gender or age. School rituals celebrate domination and the rewards and punishments are public. The roles of teachers and students are seen to be clear and given. In contrast, differentiated control is concerned with personal forms of transference where learners are seen to have variable attributes that undergo development and which can be developed by the teachers and school. Differentiated control includes mixed gender groups and mixed ability and school rituals celebrate participation. The reward and punishment is less public and the roles of students and teachers are ambiguous and have to be

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