Christian was a man with a very wide range of interests. At the University of Halle he lectured in mathematics, physics and all aspects of philosophy. He was an extreme rationalist, basing his teaching on the work of Leibniz and emphasising the doctrine of pre - established harmony, but for the content of his rationalism, he appealed to experience. He divided the sciences into the theoretical and the practical. For many fields Wolf wrote textbooks, which were widely used in the universities.
Descartes’s works has led to the emergence of rationalism approach. His works influenced many philosophers, primarily Spinoza and Leibniz. Descartes ' s ideas are still spoken many times in our day, including ‘’I think therefore I am(cogito ergo sum)’’. For these reasons, he is considered the father of modern philosophy. In addition, Descartes also made studies about physics and the law of the nature and these studies were the source of information for the famous physicist Isaac Newton.
He would carry this around everywhere, as a memorial of this very fateful day. As an important side note, it is significant to mention the distinction that Pascal makes with regards to the two Gods. Before this intense vision, one could find him believing in the God of mathematical infiniteness and wisdom, much as the scholars would. Nevertheless, he finds that he had been visited by the same God as Abraham, Isaac and Jacob had. As such, this was not the result of reflection and reason, but of a vivid experience.
While also represented and studied in economics or philosophy, game theory takes a specific mathematical aspect. John von Neumann and Oskar Morgenstern are the first to develop it in 1944, in “The Theory of Games and Economic Behavior” because classical mathematics (often used to describe Physics for instance) revealed being inefficient to describe and explain Economics. To them, it was closer to a strategic game. Therefore, Game theory is a relatively recent branch of mathematics that studies situations in which players (sometimes called parties) make independent decisions and considering the other one possible choice while building their strategy. The decisions of the players that lead to an optimal outcome represent a solution to the game.
Lawhead uses the example of mathematics and logic to describe that we come to conclusions by means of reason.(192). Rationalist answer the third question of epistemology by claiming that beliefs that are based on reason are inline with reality. While Plato set up many of the beginning ideas of rationalism, it was Renee Desecrettes who gave birth to modern philosophy in the 17th century. (Lawhead, 200). Desecrettes is important because he made a rationalist connection in how we have ideas of perfection.
The Cartesian axiom declares that there is as much formal reality in the cause of an idea as the objective reality of the idea itself. Spinoza debunks the idea with his axioms of powers: “The power of Thought to think about or to comprehend things, is not greater than the power of Nature to exist and to act.” Spinoza’s emphasis on power in the Short Treatise and the Correction of the Understanding has proven a thorough argument. He expounds his thought in an array of syllogisms, they can be encapsulated in the following: The more reality something has, the more existence it involves. The possible existence Descartes proposes has finite degrees of perfection while necessary existence has infinite perfection. Whatever has the power
Critical Thinking Since critical thinking is a complicated concept, there are different definitions concerning its various aspects. The first definition may be that given by Dewey (1909, as cited in Fahim & Pezeshki, 2012), father of the new tradition in critical thinking, who first called this notion “reflective thinking” and defined it precisely as an “active, persistent, careful consideration of a belief or supposed form of knowledge in the lights of grounds which support it and the further conclusions to which it tends” (p. 154). Alternatively, Glaser (1942) a psychologist, defines critical thinking as an attitude and rational use of skills in problem-solving contexts. Siegel (1988, as cited in Liaw, 2007, p.50) calls critical thinking
Influence of Isaac Newton in the Development of Economic Thought What makes academia so beautiful is the similar strand of thought that run through different disciplines creating familiar and similar foundation of their development. The juxtaposition of Newton with economic thought may be seen with an element of surprise and curiosity. Newton, as we all know, made large and mighty contributions to the field of science but what we may not know is how he played a crucial role in influencing thinkers of different fields to follow the similar direction of thought. Isaac Newton was a physicist, mathematician, and one of the first scientific intellects of his time in England. He was born at Woolsthorpe, near Lincolnshire in 1616.
Dugald Stewart (1753-1828) [Edinburgh]. He taught mathematics at the University of Edinburgh, standing in for his father, until 1785, when he was appointed professor of moral philosophy. In 1792, his Elements of the Philosophy of the Human Mind appeared, and his Outlines of Moral Philosophy was published in 1793. His philosophy followed that of Reid and represented a reaction against that of Berkley and Hume. He professed to follow the method of Francis Bacon but held that it was possible to establish fundamental laws of certainty and principles of knowledge.
This revolution in philosophical thought was sparked by the French philosopher and mathematician René Descartes, the first figure in the movement known as Rationalism, and much of subsequent Western philosophy can be seen as a response or a reaction to his ideas. His method was to get rid of everything about which there could be even a suspicion of doubt to arrive at the single unquestionable principle that he possessed consciousness and was able to think "I think, therefore I am" in Latin "Cogito ergo sum" When François Marie Arouet de Voltaire (1694–1778) was visiting London, he found that philosophy like many other things there had changed significantly. He had left the world a plenum, and now he now found it was a vacuum. At Paris the universe was seen composed of vortices of subtle matter but nothing