It hasfrequently been used in various fields like medical diagnosis, forecasting, automation, and productioncontrol (Heckerman, Mamdani, & Wellman, 1995). A Bayesian belief network is constituted of both quantitative as well as qualitative parts (Van Der Gaag, 1996).All projects are unique to each other by nature (Project management institute, 2013).Due to this reason; the data and facts obtained from one project may not always be relevant or if relevant may not always be applied to others due to their variations. Often the data collection from long-term projects is timely and costly. However, experts and their opinionsare often obtainablewhen required which can be beneficially used as a source of information (Shepherd, Hubbard, Fenton, Claxton, Luedeling, & de Leeuw, 2015). This is where BN comes as a handy tool to take advantage of this expert knowledge with combination of available facts and information to derive necessary prediction whenever
tion Job satisfaction is one of the key attitudes that is of interest to managers and researchers alike, and can be defined as a situation where the evaluation of a person 's job or job experience leads to a pleasurable or positive emotional state. ( ) Job satisfaction is a person 's general attitude towards a job and when people speak of an employee’s attitudes, they are likely to be referring to employee satisfaction. ( - ) As it is based on employee attitudes, job satisfaction is inferred and personal, and is influenced by an individual 's perceptions. ( ) Job satisfaction is the feelings a person has about their job, including the different facets of that job. ( ) Job satisfaction is described as a combination of attitudes towards a person
Kumar (2009) states that power is repressive when individuals perceived an organisation is applied management techniques and guiding strategies to conduct people’s behaviour without any framing discussion with employees which ignore or marginalise the concerns and interest of the employees (Kumar, 2009). However, Foucault suggested power is not repressive but it is productive (Sawicki, 1991). He opposes the concept of repression because this concept is only about the negative
Keynesians who are also known as neoclassical synthesis develop their theory which considers some of ideas from the general theory. In their theory they develop a view that in short run output is influenced by aggregate demand especially in some economic disastrous such as depressions (Felderer and Homburg 1992:
This branch of ethic state that the action is more important than the consequences. This ethics is contrasted to consequentialism and utilitarianism, deontology states that some acts are always wrong regardless the outcome unlike a utilitarian or consequentialist, and that a good will is the sole intrinsic good. Kant’s deontological ethics. Kant created the philosophical concept of the categorical imperative. This imperative denotes an absolute, unconditional requirement and that one should always treat others as ends in themselves and never as means to our ends.
This method is not standard in many engineering institutes because this method misused easily and also French design method, it’s easy to understand and sequential procedure with feedback.The Main drawback of this model is its process ends in working drawing. Pahl and Beitz’s approach is based on an older thinking compared to the modern systematic design. Also, this model fails in the setting that is if the members are at a different location it impacts the overall product. In the case of Ulrich and Eppinger due to the fact that each objective or task is being distributed to different sections of the team the end result will a combined effort and that too in an effective manner.In this design process, Ulrich and Eppinger method is used because in this development of the product each section work parallel. Changes possible are at any stages.
A Study of Relationship between Satisfaction with Compensation and Work Motivation Abstract The present study while smearing the theoretical outline based on expectancy theory studied the relationship between satisfaction with compensation and work motivation. The dimensions i.e. fixed pay, flexible pay, and benefits were studied with regard to satisfaction with compensation. The work motivation on the other hand was studied using the effort and performance dimensions. Literature research as well as practical survey consisting of self-administered questionnaire was used to study professionals in general.
• To add to a base for merit or performance-related pay. Characteristics of job evaluation The essential goal of job evaluation is to figure out the value of work; however this is a quality which differs occasionally and from spot to place affected by certain economic pressure. The principle features of job evaluation are: • To supply bases for compensation arrangement established on realities as opposed to on dubious moderate thoughts. • It endeavors to assess jobs, not individuals. • Job evaluation is the yield given by job analysis.
It is impossible to determine a universal solution for budgeting problems since the budgeting process is influenced by many factors that differ among entities. The paper points out that in theory budgeting is a powerful tool. In practice, however, it is complicated to properly implement and maintain a budgeting system that adequately serves all needs. The previous section highlights two approaches that are used in practice, the “Activity-Based Budgeting Approach” and the “Beyond Budgeting Approach”. While the first approach’s aim is to improve the budgeting process, “Beyond Budgeting” advocates abandoning
Continuing this example of the layoff decision, professionals of human resource can use their expertise to quantify the costs of t layoff including the estimated replacement cost that will be incurred because of the need to replace the lost workforce. Here the central point is not that companies should adopt a policy of no layoffs but rather that management ought to consider all the costs and benefits of such practices. Thus one role of the measurement aspect of HRA is to provide numerical information as an input to management decisions. However, there is another effect of the measurement dimension of human resource accounting-in-brief, the very act of monitoring and quantifying the costs and value of people from a human resource perspective. According to the traditional way of thinking about people in organizations, they represent an