Active Learning: This can generally be said to be an instructional method that engages students in the learning process. It requires meaningful learning activities and thinking, in order to be mindful of what is being learned, the purpose of learning, and the goal for learning by students; Aspect of active learning requires student to be an active listener by understanding the learning process either in a lecture or otherwise and the must be able to state what is learnt in his or her own words. Looking and seeing in one’s own word, things like diagrams, paintings etc., without explanation from a lecturer or a teacher before the proper understanding of the motive behind it portrays a good quality of active learning in students. Hearing and sighting can be encouraged individually or collectively as a group in students active learning process, taking tour and visit to learned topic sites and organizations can help to broaden student scope and proffer better understanding of the study topic. Developing, producing, practicing to delivering presentation and speeches should be taking to proper considerations towards achieving active learning perspective in students.
But a single score in traditional tests may reveal students’ different understanding of the subject matter and may show that they have employed different strategic processes. Sole dependence on tests consisting of response-choice items may lead to instruction that emphasizes recall of facts and the application of memorized routines or procedures. Cowie and Moreland (2015) in his book stated that for students to become discerning, classroom assessment needs to ensure students experience and exercise individual and decision making. It must be applied to their everyday life and used for a long life learning. However, if assessment requires synthesis of information, divergent thinking and evaluation, instruction is more likely to include activities that promote these skills.
Teachers need to turn the learning environment with a variety of methods so that children feel the desire to learn more. It is agreed that learning is an active process in which the learner uses sensory input and constructs meaning out of it. The more traditional formulation of this idea involves the terminology of the active learner (Dewey’s term) stressing that the learners needs to do something; that learning is not the passive acceptance of knowledge which still exists but that
Teachers using the preventive approach offer warmth, acceptance, and support unconditionally, not based on a student's behavior. Fair rules and consequences are established and students are given frequent and consistent feedback regarding their behavior.  One way to establish this kind of classroom environment is through the development and use of a classroom contract. The contract should be created by both students and the teacher. In the contract, students and teachers decide and agree on how to treat one another in the classroom.
This is because changes in the behavior of students is the impact on students ' thinking process. This theory focuses on the process of knowing and acquiring knowledge through information processing by means of discussion, reasoning, problem solving and brainstorming activities. This theory is also closely associated with the process of storing information. A psychological cognitivism said that learning involves the use of memory, motivation and thinking and therefore software designers must consider the materials for learning should ensure that there are activities for the various learning styles10. In addition, the teaching strategies should highlight important information and content to enhance the learning process.
THE ROLE OF SELF-REGULATED LEARNING IN TEACHING AND LEARNING. A general working definition of self-regulated learning is that it is an active, constructive process whereby learners set goals for their learning and then attempt to monitor, regulate, and control their cognition, motivation, and behavior, guided and constrained by their goals and the contextual features in the environment. These self-regulatory activities can mediate the relations between individuals and the context and their overall achievement. This definition is similar to other models of self-regulated learning (e.g., Zimmerman, 1989, 1998a, b; 2000). Self-regulated learning concerns the application of general models of regulation and self regulation to issues of learning
To achieve this goal, teachers must react assertively, as opposed to aggressively or non-assertively (Dr.Mac., 2014). On the other hand, Gray and Ayres (1998) claimed that Canter’s assertive discipline model suggested that assertive discipline has its fundamental premise one the reinforcement of appropriate behaviour and students’ acceptance of the result of their actions. Assertive discipline enables teachers to establish a classroom structure and routine that provides the optimal learning environment in light of their own personal needs. Also to determine and request appropriate behaviour from the students which meet your needs and encourage the positive social and educational development of the
Materials: provide a stimulus to learning they need to contain challenging and interesting texts, enjoyable activities that stimulate the learners’ thinking capacities, offering opportunities for learners to use their previous knowledge and skills. motivating, challenging, have a clear purpose and clear instructions, meet students’ needs, make them think and share their opinions and own experiences, and allow to develop their confidence and fluency Students should be aware of assessment criteria without which teachers can neither teach nor assess the requisite skills. Moreover, students themselves can also be involved into designing the criteria for assessing. Their decisions then are used as the criteria for self-assessment of the presentations conducted in the
Teachers can aid students by presenting material in a logical sequence and by showing students how to organize information on their own. • Meaningful learning occurs when the learner relates new information to prior ideas and experiences. Teachers should mediate learning by relating new information to students’ current knowledge and by helping students to learn techniques of self- mediation. • Visual imagery is easier to recall than abstractions. Teachers should help students develop learning skills that incorporate visual imagery and other memory-aiding
Teaching methods differ in terms of approach which as observed relate more to procedures which influence inner coherence, produce specific educational effects. The traditional approach embodies two, namely: (a) the didactic method, also called the directive or autocratic style, which is based on logo-centrism and an instructor-centred approach. Its focus is the teacher, who explains the logical and practical aspects of the issue or topic; secondly, (b) the dialectic method. In this approach, students are involved in the learning process and are expected to ask questions; thirdly, (c) The heuristic or research method. This method makes students the protagonists of their learning process, since they must find, guided by the instructor, and through research and experimentation, the solutions to the problems.