Self-identity and culture is an integral part of Indian women who refused to buckle themselves under the pressure and succeeded in changing their own lives and lives of those who are dependent on them. In literature, it was being portrayed by majority of writers, among them, Bharati Mukherjee, became the live example of a free woman who through her novels, portrayed the struggles of immigrant women for achieving their identity. Mukherjee provides confidence for the readers to challenge boldly against the traditional frame work of the society and to turn her way towards a new consciousness of her own worth and place in the society. Bharati Mukherjee is a well known immigrant writers of America, who started her writing career at the age of three. She has achieved many prestigious awards.
The immigrant lands herself in a new country and a new culture. As a result there is a cultural conflict in her mind. The immigrant looks back to her mother country with pain and nostalgia. Married to a Canadian-North American Clark Blaise, Mukherjee faces demeaning conditions in Canada. Herself an immigrant, Mukherjee shows the darker side of immigration that is not often portrayed in other immigrant narratives.
Mukherjee’s fiction powerfully evokes the torn identities and cultural tensions that her South Asian protagonists suffer. Her focus is also on Indian woman and her struggle. Her own struggle of identity is something which brings out the essence of her works. Her work features not only cultural clashes but undercurrents of violence also. Mukherjee published her first two novels while living in Canada, The Tiger’s Daughter being published in 1972 and Wife in 1975.
Bharati Mukherjee’s women characters never live or cry like the stereotyped pathetic women characters commonly see in traditional stories. She questions the notion of society where people believe the American life is a dream of the fulfillment of all ambitions and they all live in a heaven like life with money and all luxury
AN EXPATRIATE INDIAN WOMAN IN WIFE THE PHASE OF EXPATRIATION: Bharati Mukherjee, an Indo-American writer of the recent times, has presented her themes in a different dimension than ever before. Being the writer of the modern times, she has depicted in her fiction the problems faced by Indian and other third-world immigrants who attempt to assimilated into North American life-styles. Using and understanding prose replete with ironic developments and with observations, she focused upon sensitive protagonists who lack a stable sense of personal and cultural identity and are victimized by racism, sexism and other forms of social oppression. She started gaining recognition and reputation for her novels in United States. Her popularity shot up when her second book The Middleman and Other Stories bagged the 1988 National Critics Award in America.
Bharati Mukherjee presented a theme of cultural clash in the novel, and the extreme of the pain that is experienced by expatriates; she weaves the story poignantly around her protagonist Dimple, the story moves swiftly around her protagonist, struggle, efforts of assimilation, experiences of communalism, un-belongingness, swinging mode of her psyche, and at the end the drastic disintegration of Dimple, that culminates in the final act of Americanization, (from Dimple’s perspective). The novel is the pictorial representation of the pain and trauma of expatriates, especially female expatriates, caught in between the nostalgia and frustration of realities. It explores the consequences of un-homeliness in alien land where expatriates spends their life as permanent alien residents. Keywords: # Diaspora #Migration #Alienation #Exile #Home Introduction: Bharati Mukherjee is better known as a writer who has completely imbibed the culture of alien land, rejecting her hyphenation. She is considered as an immigrant turned citizen who considers herself completely absorbed in the American culture.
One of such migrating character is Bharati Mukherjee’s Jasmine who undergoes a rapid shaping and reshaping of identity in order to be born again and again. She who has lived in different cultures clearly presents the cultural shock. The migration leads to the crisis of identity with a final reconciliation to the choice. Bharati Mukherjee uses her experiences of the Indian diaspora in order to create a global narrative. Jasmine (1991) a piece of work by her represents the journey of a woman from Jyoti of Jullundhar to Jane Ripplemeyer of Elsa County, Iowa.
Abstract Bharati Mukherjee represents in her novels the contemporary woman’s struggle to define herself and attain an autonomous selfhood, especially in cross-cultural crisis, a subject which has assumed a great significance in the present world of globalization. She endeavored to dive deep into the distorted psyche of those immigrants who have been surviving in the conflict of traditional Indian values. In her characters there is an inherent fascination for Western mode of living that they have chosen out of their professional compulsions or for their urge to achieve a greater freedom in liberal and dynamic society of America. The focus in Bharati Mukherjee fiction is on the predicament of migrants and the possibilities for their absorption and rejection in the new world. Her most remarkable works reflect not only her pride in her Indian heritage, but also her celebration of embracing America.
DISINTEGRATION OF THE ‘SELF’ IN BHARATI MUKHERJEE’S WIFE Dr.P. TAMILARASAN JAYAPRAGASH JAssistant Professor of English Assistant Professor of English SRM University SRM University Abstract Bharati Mukherjee (1940-2017) is one of the most acclaimed writers of the Indian Diaspora whose novels are impregnated with issues of identity and the yearning for an understanding of the self in an alien land. She is well known for the portrayal of the myriad, complex personal and cultural negotiations that emigrants, especially women have to go through in their arduous journey of life in an alien land. Torn between two conflicting cultures of the homeland and the migrated land, the deformation and the transformation of the identity of women and the predicament of women who
Chitra Banerjee Divakaruni is a famous Indian American author whose works mainly focus on the experiences of the South-Asian immigrants, and their related problems of adoption and adaption. She writes for adults as well as children and her fiction covers a wide spectrum of different genres like fantasy, realistic fiction, magical realism, and historical fiction. Divakaruni’s first notable attempt in the field of literature was a collection of stories Arranged Marriage (1995), which won an American Book award and many other prestigious awards. This collection of stories established Divakaruni’s literary reputation. Her major novels include The Mistress of Spices (1997), Sister of My Heart (1999), Queen of Dreams (2004), The Palace of Illusions (2008), and Oleander Girl (2013).