The bloodshed that has littered the history of African nations throughout their independent existences has often been considered a direct consequence of the forcible and careless unification of tribes into nations without any understanding of the politics that govern their relationships. Chinua Achebe’s Things Fall Apart (1958) is a historical novel, set in the British colony of Nigeria at about the turn
Conflicts which appear as a mere inter-ethnic differences consisted of multifaceted variables (Lubo, 2012). He mentioned a number of ethnic conflicts that occurred after 1991 and their causes and concludes: “In spite of the creation of ethnic federalism as an endeavor to address inter-ethnic conflictual problems with Ethiopia” (ibid, 2012:66). Thus, the ethnic federal arrangement has become major source of ethnic conflicts over identity, territory and claims to power and resources. Moreover, according to Mesfin (2006), ethnic conflicts are the results of deliberate manipulation of ethnic sentiments and identities by either leader of ethnic groups or government officers who want to use conflicts as a means of securing economic and political
Likewise, on March 2004, the United Nations called "biggest humanitarian catastrophe in the modern era." In April, a senior official of the United Nations spoke of "ethnic cleansing" to describe the atrocities committed in the region. A text signed by the United States House of Representatives in July 2004 has even used the term "genocide". However, in Darfur, three factors seem to explain the situation: First, it is to keep in mind the underlying causes of the conflict, among which, the lack of meaningful participation of local and national authorities, and the feelings of social, political and economic marginalization of some ethnics, and regional development which, based on structural inequalities felt by many other communities across the country has deteriorated the tension in
In the article provoking a genocide by the journal of Genocide Research, the author reexamines the role of the Tutsi led by the RFP forces. They highlighted that the Rwanda Patriotic front(RFP) had the support of international community and they threatened to overthrow the Hutu regime. This led to the genocide. Approximately ¾ of the Rwanda domestic Tutsi population were killed in 100 days. The Tutsi rebels defeated the Hutu and gained power, but their population was devastated.
Camps were set up for former Rwandese soldiers to rearm, these camps were one of the reasons war broke out between Congo and Rwanda in 1996. To this day Rwandese forces are found along the border and continue to attack citizens (Outreach Programme on the Rwanda Genocide and the United Nations). Since then there have been genocide trails for those involved in the mass killings. In conclusion, the European colonisation of Rwanda by Belgium created problems it was unable to solve after the country gained its independence. The makeshift power structure implemented by Belgium created a polarized, racist society which became the perfect framework for a revolution after the country was
As the Rwandan Genocide of April to July 1994, has shown, when group crimes are not nipped in the bud or are not “de-escalated”, barbarism and cannibalism become the order of the day and in such situation, the presidential ruling class and members of the National Assembly are far from being secured because such is “a war by all against all”. Like in Rwanda, the president of the country’s Supreme Court, its prime minister and president, etc all perished in the
The Saar is a territory of Germany’s, that produced large amounts of coal, iron, steel, sugar, beer, pottery, among other things. This loss was especially hard on Germany and was included in Part II of the Treaty. The German government signed the Treaty under protest. Many people thought of it as a betrayal, and several politicians throughout Germany were targeted and assassinated by terrorists who believed them to be responsible for the conditions of the Treaty and the horror that it caused. Germany wasn’t the only country who felt as though the treaty was unfair, however.
Is Religion portrayed as an evil and enslaving tool that hurts and breaks relationships? Purple Hibiscus is a novel written by renowned Nigerian author,”Ngozi Adichie.” The novel takes place in Nigeria and there are two distinct families of the same bloodline who have radically different traditions and ways of life. A number of crucial themes sprung up from these two families such as dictatorship, faith, love and much more. The majority of themes that are present in the book reflect and allude to the postcolonial state of Nigeria. The postcolonial state of Nigeria was very militarial and authoritarian.
In 1897, Benin was conquered by the British due to the fatal attack on the Acting Consul-General James Phillip and his army. As a result, the Benin City was completely destroyed and the Oba was arrested. The Benin art was confiscated and sent to Britain, were they either was displayed in British museums or sold to Germany. The Benin art proved to be much more than just art created by "primitive people" as speculations about the assumptions of black people grew. Even though, the Portuguese were the first Europeans to have an interaction with the Benin world, it was the British occupation of Benin City that led to a cultural key encounter between the Benin world and the Europeans.
Some of the general features, characteristics and consequences of internal conflicts - wars waged after the World War II are: (a) millions of victims, especially among the civilian population; (B) a high level of brutality and cruelty; (C) genocide; (D) ethnic cleansing; (E) the mass of refugees; (F) an extremely difficult humanitarian disposal of innocent victims, etc. The largest number of victims in internal conflicts occurred in Rwanda in 1994. Officials of the UN Secretariat had failed to submit to the Security Council a timely warning of extremist plans to kill thousands of members of the Tutsi and moderate members of the Hutu tribe. When the genocide began, the number of "blue helmets", who were engaged in that country, was reduced to only 270 people, and the UN and the Security Council, due to pressure from the USA, failed to respond. The result was about 1,000,000