Residual Sodium Carbonate

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Bicarbonates and Carbonates
High levels of bicarbonate in water can increase the concentration of sodium in water, raise soil pH, and have a negative impact on soil permeability. The presence of carbonate can compound the effect of bicarbonate on soil’s pH. Carbonate exists in water with pH levels of 8.0 or higher.
To determine the effect of bicarbonate on water, the Residual Sodium Carbonate (RSC) is calculated and expressed as mill-equivalents per liter (meq/L):
RSC = (HCO3 + CO3) – (Ca + Mg)
An RSC value below 1.25 meq/L is generally considered safe for gardening and lawn irrigation, while water containing levels above 2.5 meq/L is probably not suitable.
Other Considerations
Other tests might also be advised in some situations: The amounts of some
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Forms explosive mixture with CO. Applied by Instrument called Chloronome. Use of Bleaching powder and Hypochlorite (a) Commercially available Calcium hypochlorite (HTH) or perchloron (contains 60% to 70% of Cl2 1 kg HTH for 1 million litre of water is required. (b) Bleaching powder (CaOCl2) Contains 30% of Cl2 They raise pH & hence not used these days Use of Chlorine tablet Single tablet of 0.5g is sufficient for 20 litres of water. Use of Chlorine Dioxide Unaffected by pH. (6 to 10) hence advantageous for treating alkaline water with pH 8 to 10
Types of Chlorination Plain Chlorination Only chlorine treatment to raw water ≈ 0.5 mg/L Pre Chlorination Apply Chlorination before filtration. Dose 5 to 10 mg/L Post Chlorination Apply chlorine in the end Dosage such that free residual chlorine is 0.1 to 0.2 mg/L after 20 minutes. Double Chlorination Pre Chlorination + Post Chlorination Break point Chlorination Gives us idea of the extent of the chlorine added to water. Infact, it represents that much dose of chlorine, beyond which any further addition will appear as free residual

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