Bilinguals have proven to have a faster “conceptual access” during translation as well as assisting with certain features of memory (Harley, 2008). Leaving aside the positive aspects of bilingualism, there are criticisms that need to be addressed so that it can be compared and weighed in relation to the prominent positive impact bilingualism has. For starters, it is evident through the observation of switching between languages and the difficulty that is involved, brain damaged individuals who are bilingual may suffer from further disorders (Harley, 2008). Another key criticism in being proficient in two languages is that it is said that bilinguals respond to stimuli a lot slower than monolinguals do (Green, 1986 as cited in Harley, 2008). Adding to this critique, through “electrophysiological measures” it is evident that there is a complex and significant difference between monolinguals and bilinguals in terms of the comprehension as well as their reading (Proverbio et al., 2002 as cited in Harley, 2008).
So, if the definition of bilingualism in this article is defined based only on the linguistic systems, rather than a social or societal one, the results would be plainly linked to the linguistic aspect of cognitive functioning. Despite the research given with regards to Lothian Birth Cohort 1936, is it accurate enough to apply those findings on all bilinguals? If an individual has the ability to speak 2 languages, but due to its surroundings, the second language will seldom be use. This then it does not benefit the brain after all. This is because, eventually, that person will only be concentrating on one language only.
First myth is introduced as receptive and expressive language which means understanding in a child with Down syndrome is measured by what he/she can say. A large body of research have shown that children with Down syndrome understand more than what they can say. (Martin, Klusek, Estingarriba & Roberts, 2009, cited in Cologon, 2013). Benefits of silent reading are mentioned in this part. It is argued that silent reading helps comprehension due to focus is on pronunciation rather than meaning in oral reading.
The author establishes that both monolingual and bilingual children can detect grammatical violations in meaningful sentences, however bilinguals are the ones who can detect grammatical errors in semantically anomalous sentences, because they can ignore misleading information. For the author this represents that the bilingual advantage has less to do with metalinguistic knowledge than with an attentional advantage in selectivity and inhibition, which are important process for executive functioning. Bialystok
Before talking about the arguments for and against the bilingual education, it is essential to define this notion. Bilingual education is often mixed with bilingualism, but those notions are slightly different. The bilingualism characterizes someone who “has the minimum ability to complete fluency in more than one language” (Hornby, 1977), whereas the bilingual education is “the use of two languages as a media of instruction for a child or a group of children in part or all of the school curriculum” (Cohen, 1975). Thus, bilingual education is taught mainly through school, unlike bilingualism which can be acquired thanks to two parents who gives two different native languages to their child. Arguments in favor of bilingual education.
Cummins (2005) states that instruction should be done only using target language, and translation between the two languages should not be allowed. On the one hand, many researchers like Zentella (1981), Shin (2005), Setati, Adler, Reed and Bapoo (2002) state the negative effects of the usage of two languages in the classroom. While on the other hand, researchers like Lin (2005), Martin (2005) and Arthur & Martin (2006) bring different arguments to state the useful character of bilingual classrooms such as better learning process, safe practice for the students, participation, etc. Different researchers give different explanations to the term “bilingualism”. Baker (2003), for instance, describes it with diglossia stating that each language has different social functions.
Also verbal reactions may be slightly slower because needs a extra thinking caused by known many languages. Overall, the advantages are more important than the disadvantages. The study of a foreign language is encouraged especially among the children. People who speak several languages change their perception of discussion topics based on the main features of the languages they know. If languages are used interchangeably in communication, the speaker will have alternately different communication concepts and implications.
Again code mixing could be a frequent thing in an everyday life conversation. If your child can cope with that and understand words from both languages as well as the intended meaning, then no don't avoid this. If though you feel like the child is more confudado and doesn't know how to react, try and minimise code mixing in conversations. Does bilingualism make children more intelligent? I would suggest that bilinguals show certain advantages when it comes to social understanding and as we know speaking a language might help us understand a whole new culture.
The present study were novel in establishing that the unique power of dynamic assessment of phonological awareness might predict spelling performance independently of English learning experience. Most of previous studies revealed that a lack of language learning experience at the beginning of kindergarten could affect performance on evaluations of phonological awareness and lead to children being identified as at risk for reading disability (Bridges & Catts, 2011; Castles & Coltheart, 2004). There are three reasons that can be explained that why conducts a dynamic assessment of phonological awareness in EFL environment. First, few studies have assessed the validity of a dynamic phonological awareness in young EFL learners. A dynamic phonological awareness test may be a fair for these students, who would have performed poorly in static assessment and would have been misidentified as learning disabled simply due to
For example, it may ruin the feeling of safeness in the school environment for that student. It can even inhibit their ability to excel in academics. In an article written by Elisha Mcneil, it states: A growing body of evidence highlights the connection between adverse childhood experiences and academic problems. The effects of trauma can impair a child’s cognitive ability, while the stress of a dysfunctional or unstable home life can make children act out or shut down in the classroom. In a way, I think that a school not being trauma-informed almost creates an unsafe environment for the student.