In her article, Bilingual Lives, Bilingual Experience, Anna Wierzbicka is trying to demonstrate that the “vocabulary of emotions is undoubtedly different from language to language”. Each language has its own distinct and specific words that are meant to express particular things that maybe could not be translated or could not have the same meaning in another language. By that the speaker could not interpretate the word as he would do in his native language, due to his perspective. She argues that by being bilingual you are expressing yourself in two different ways, shifting from one language to another. As the writter suggests, “emotions are central to human life and bilingualism provides a new perspective on emotions”.
Whereas sequential bilingualism occurs when a person learns a second language, generally at the age of three, and become fluent with it, after having well developed his first native language. Over the years, bilingualism has been a sensitive subject for psycholinguistics, cognitive scientists and neuroscientists because of the positive and negative effects it has on the human brain linguistically and cognitively, as it has been a confusing subject for the parents. First of all, for the advantages, “The Shape Stroop Test”, a study that involved both monolingual and bilingual children, showed that the latest are more capable to concentrate on a significant task or information while ignoring irrelevant ones, which is one of the many cognitive benefits. The study consisted for instance on showing the kids photos of fruits containing smaller ones and they were supposed to spot the smaller fruits. Choosing the smaller fruit is not easy for young children because of the natural instinct to look at the bigger
The present study were novel in establishing that the unique power of dynamic assessment of phonological awareness might predict spelling performance independently of English learning experience. Most of previous studies revealed that a lack of language learning experience at the beginning of kindergarten could affect performance on evaluations of phonological awareness and lead to children being identified as at risk for reading disability (Bridges & Catts, 2011; Castles & Coltheart, 2004). There are three reasons that can be explained that why conducts a dynamic assessment of phonological awareness in EFL environment. First, few studies have assessed the validity of a dynamic phonological awareness in young EFL learners. A dynamic phonological awareness test may be a fair for these students, who would have performed poorly in static assessment and would have been misidentified as learning disabled simply due to
• Inspire the child to use behaviors which are morally accepted inside and outside the classroom etc. (Schemrich, 2003) Criticism for both the theories Piaget’s theory Kohlberg’s theory • As the stages suggests, children thinking is not consistent. • He recognized that the young children are more capable than he thought. • He understates the social components of cognitive development. Ojose (2008), states that in a child even though, the child is ordered chronologically the development of the child may differ drastically.
Wolfran speculates on individuals from higher society view others who speak dialects that are not of Standard English as inferior, “Proponents of the deficit positions believe that speakers of dialects with vernacular forms have a handicap-socially and cognitively-because the dialects are illogical, sloppy, or just bad grammar” (Wolfran 17) Standard English is the main dialect used in schools and for testing such as the SAT. He also explains how not being fluent in Standard English may be problematic when it comes to test taking, “Standardized tests assume that test-takers are proficient in Standard English, and proficiency in other dialects may be defined by standardized measures as disability (Wolfran 87) Not being able to understand the question that is asked could be a correlation to lower test scores. Wolfran criticizes schools that do not accommodate students who speak other dialects by stating, “When schools do not systematically accommodate
The social identification theory suggests that if we have no language identification in the other cultural groups, it will be leading in the negative consequences. Language is far beyond the communication tool (Imberti, 2007; Lauring, 2008) and this tool effects the lives and social status of ESL learners. In relation to language and culture, Byram and Kramsch (2008) presented the notion of teaching language as culture not the teaching of language and culture. They were of the view that now a days foreign language teachers are facing challenges in the teaching of second language "as it presents, expresses and embodies mindsets and worldviews that might be different from those of our American students, " and so they presented a method of teaching "that approaches language as both a personal and cultural / historical event and that places individual experience into a larger social and historical framework" (p.21). This type of notion gives the ethnographic and critical outlook with a holistic view of language and
To sum up,ın this essay I tried to tell bilingualism affects on the people and bilingualism.In my opinion ,being bilingualism has many advantages for people as well as disadvantages.People’s mother tongue support directly their attitudes,feelings and so on. The most important affect which age you started to learn a new second language.By the way ,I have taken helping other sources for telling very
While it is true that academic success is possible with unilingual education, there “is absolutely no data to support the claim that students put in all-English classes made better progress than those who were ‘still stuck in bilingual ones’” (Beardsmore, 2003, p. 19). In fact, the opposite has been shown to be true. Bilingual students perform just as well as and are sometimes even outperforming their unilingual peers, while also experiencing academic advantages. Kluger notes several studies that show multilingual people are generally “better at reasoning, at multitasking, at grasping and reconciling conflicting ideas” (2013), meaning bilingual education can actually be superior to and produce better results and students than unilingual education. A bilingual approach to education is a good policy.
More than half of the world‘s population is bilingual and many researchers are captivated to explore how language and thinking collaborate, that is, what cognitive abilities are affected by bilingualism and to what extent other factors like language proficiency and age of acquisition are predominant. In the early years of a child’s life the development of both speaking and reasoning occurs at an astonishing pace therefore such research has comprehensive implications on child development and education, and offers theoretical and practical benefits to human cognition. Just several decades ago it was widely considered that young chilren should not be exposed to two (or more) languages as this may lead to confusion and slower cognitive development.
This process has been the subject of study of linguists, philosophers and psychologists throughout the history trying to understand and explain how a child makes the use of a language so spontaneously and how they learn it so accurately without any overt instruction. The question is how can children acquire a language and be able to use it in a so astonishing way? For the purposes of this essay I will focus on the process of language acquisition and the importance and influence of the environment as well as how Nature and nurture interact to support its complexity and elaboration throughout a human’s life. Language acquisition starts at birth. The child is exposed to a spoken language and the Phonological system starts working.
Although the term translanguaging has been coined in the last decade, the language phenomenon that it is based on has been recorded as far back to pre-colonial times. It is based on the natural occurrence within language learners known as code-switching. de la Luz (2012) explains that in monolingual contexts, code-switching is often considered a linguistic deficit. “In bilingual contexts, however, students use both languages to make sense of assignments and as normal practice with little awareness of linguistic shifts; at other times, students purposely shift languages to showcase their billiteracy competence.” Researchers in multilingual European contexts have coined translanguaging and transliteracy as new terms for this type of biliteracy. They view these practices as normal communication modes of bilinguals who make no attempt to separate languages according to their function and context.
Approachability Task (Figure 4), administered to 26 adolescents and adults with WBS, age and gender-matched to 26 controls, asked them to rate pictures of adult faces based on how much they would like to approach and have a conversation with them. WBS subjects were significantly more likely than controls to rate both negative and positive faces as more approachable. In tasks not structured to measure social behavior, WBS children often appeared far more interested in the researcher than the task at hand, often to the detriment of their performance. Consistent with this observation, it has been demonstrated that children with WBS will often attempt to engage the researcher or distract them instead of attempting the task at hand (Järvinen-Pasley
Another argument presented in favor of CCSS is how standards provide help developing better outcomes to improve achievement gaps that were a result of NCLB. Closely related to learning gap and opportunity gap, the term achievement gap refers to any significant and persistent disparity in academic performance or educational attainment between different groups of students, such as white students and minorities, for example, or students from higher-income and lower-income families. Achievement gaps hurts and hinders representation measurements of standards when it comes to developing these children and evaluating performance over a set