Process oils have low unpredictability, and high thickness and pliancy. These properties encourage the mixing and scattering of fillers in tire and elastic items and enhance their elastomer workability. The procedure oils increment the execution of elastic and tire items and give high solidness a relative latency towards curing added substances. Process oils have low unpredictability, and high consistency and pliancy. These properties encourage the mixing and scattering of fillers in tire and elastic items and enhance their elastomer workability.
The first is a fatty vegetable oil obtained by pressing the mustard seeds. The second one is an essential oil that is made by grinding the seeds, mixing them with water and extracting the oil through distillation. The third process involves infusing mustard seed extract with other vegetable oils such as soy bean oil. All three categories of oil
In term of vegetable oil, it can be classified into two main types are edible and non-edible oil, but due to the main concern about crop prices of edible vegetable oil which higher than pure diesel fuel. Non-edible vegetable oil becomes more feasible to serves as biodiesel feedstocks corresponding to less amount of sulphur, renewables, cheap, yield acceptable biofuel production, can cultivate in non-cropped land and provides opportunities for poverty countries. Apart from vegetable oil, fats that obtained from animal such as lard, tallow, poultry fats and fish gives benefit on providing high cetane number, clean, renewables and support in term of rising economy prices. Nevertheless, the disposal of waste animal fats and the limited availability are considered. The last group is referring to bacteria, algae, fungi, tarpenes, latexes, cooking oil and micro-algae.
Castor oil contains rich triglyceride which is derived from the plant Ricinus communis L. The castor plant grows very fast in many tropical green regions. Now a day’s most of the countries such as Brazil, China and India provide over 90% of the oil. In addition, castor oil contains a large content of fatty acid which contains hydroxyl compounds with unsaturated compounds. This versatile material is light in color; highly viscous fluid, low toxic and highly thermal stable. The compatibility of castor oil with oils, waxes, natural resins, and gums shows attractive and needful properties .
leaves do not contain the essential oil. It contains volatile oil (1.5-2.5%), nitrogenous base saussarine (0.05%), kushtin. The essential oil of roots is a pale yellow to Brownish very viscous liquid which contains (-) selinene, (+) seline-11-diene, (-) α-trans-borgamotene, (-) α-costal, (+) β-costal, (-) eleme-1, 3, 11 (13) – trion – 12 -al, (-) E-trans-borgamoto-2, 12- Dien-14-al, (-) arcurcumene and (-) caryophyllene oxide . Costus oil, used in perfumery, being rich in sesquiterpene lactones, is responsible for numerous cases of allergic contact dermatitis (cheminat et al., 1981) It has a very strong odor. The oil blends well with vetiver, patchouli, rose, violet, and sandal wood used in preparation of hair oil, insecticide and insect repellent, and making incense (Bhattacharya SK.
Sodium tungstate dihydrate is the catalyst. While yields and selectivity are quite high, there is a significant drawback to the process in a purification step. A liquid extraction using quaternary ammonium cations leads to a harmful environmental hazard. As one of the aims of bio-based adipic acid is to reduce environmental emissions this route was not chosen. Secondly, major difficulties were encountered in trying to find a biomass precursor to produce cyclohexene.
Transesterification process Biodiesel may be produced in batches or continuously by transesterifying triglycerides such as animal fat or vegetables oils with alcohol in presence of a base or acid catalyst. Transesterification process is the process of separating the fatty acids from their glycerol backbone to form fatty acid esters (FAE). Free fatty acid level and moisture percentage are parameters for determining the viability of transesterification process. Transesterification is classified as give below. 1.
Bio-diesel production yields undesirable by-products for example methanol and glycerin. These by-products are removed so that the bio-diesel is suitable for use. Fractional distillation is used in the essential oil, flavor and fragrance industry. Raw essential oils are extracted from different plants such as mint, clove and tee tree for example. These raw oils contains impurities that have a bad flavour or odor.
Derived primarily from the African oil palm, and its variants, palm oil is an edible vegetable oil, that now forms the basis of Malaysia’s palm oil industry. The palm tree, Elaeis guineensis was introduced to then Malaya in 1870 as an ornamental plant and by 1917, the oil palm started to be cultivated commercially. The oil palm is one of the most efficient oilseed crop in the world. According to Oil World 2013, oil palm can produce up to 10 times more oil per hectare than other oilseed crops, potentially achieving yields of up to 8 tonnes per hectare. In 2013, it produced 32.0% of global oils and fats output but only accounted for 5.5% of global cultivated land globally.