Biocatalysis Research Paper

1942 Words8 Pages
Name: Mohammad Ali Muzzammil
Group: D
Instructor: Dr. Tayabba Noor
Course: Organic Chemistry
Date: 10th November 2014
Biocatalysis
Abstract
Biocatalysis is basically two words joined together; Bio and Catalysis. “Bio” prefix denotes biological and “catalysis” means the acceleration of a chemical reaction due to a catalyst. So in general biocatalysis is the use of biological (natural) catalysts, such as enzymes. These biological catalysts are used to transform organic compounds chemically. An enzyme is a protein catalyst that is responsible for the reactions in your body. Enzymes help with digestion of food, production of essential nutrients, movement of muscles, etcetera. Enzymes not only exist in our body but are used for quite a lot of other
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They have been used since hundreds of years for the production of alcohol and the fermentation of cheese through the enzymatic breakdown of the proteins in milk. Science has excelled over the past few years. This has led to a better understanding of the “protein structure-function relationship” which has augmented the range of biocatalytic applications. Rational design, in chemical biology and biomolecular engineering, is the strategy of creating new molecules with a specific functionality, based upon the ability to forecast how the molecule's structure will affect its behavior through physical models. Rational designs are related to biocatalysts because it directs evolution which results in very specific protein variants for the enzyme. The enzyme can therefore be engineered to have the desired properties. These properties include stability, activity, selectivity and the substrate specificity. In the present era, Biocatalysis is being implemented in chemical, agricultural, pharmaceutical and food industries. Despite being used on such a scale, the true potential of Biocatalysis is yet to be…show more content…
Oxidases, peroxidase, oxygenases, dehydrogenases
Transferases Required for the catalysis of group transfer reactions. Glycosyltransferases, tansaminases, transketolases, acyltransferases
Hydrolases Provides catalysis for hydrolytic reactions. Lipases, protease, esterases, glycosidases, phosphatases
Lyases Catalyze nonhydrolytic removal of groups. Decarboxylases, ketolasesm dehydrateses, aldolases, hydratases
Isomerases Catalysis of isomerization reactions. Racemases, isomerases, epimerases,
Ligases Catalyze the synthesis of various kinds of bonds with the help of energy containing molecules. Carboxylases, synthetases
Table 3: Enzyme classification

Oxidoreductases
They catalyze the oxidation and reduction reactions that take place within the cell. They are very desirable in the industry because of their ability to catalyze specific types of reactions. They, however, need expensive cofactors.
Transferases
These enzymes catalyze the transfer of functional groups such as methyl, glycosyl, hydroxymethy and etcetera. They are not extensively used in industrial processes but ehy are used in some
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