ISOLATION, IDENTIFICATION OF STREPTOKINASE PRODUCING STREPTOCOCCUS SPECIES AND PRODUCTION OF STREPTOKINASE ABSTRACT: The objective of the study is to identify a potent streptococcal species producing streptokinase enzyme from different samples. Various food samples and soil samples were collected and analyzed for the potent streptococcal strain. They were confirmed for streptococcus species by biochemical characterization. Further, they were screened for the streptokinase activity. Among them curd sample and bore soil sample showed good activity and they were taken for further analysis and production process.
ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF BACILLUS LICHENIFORMIS Based on the experiment conducted by El-Sheshtawy et al. (2015) the sulphate reducing bacterial utilizes sulphate and carbon as energy sources in terms of growth requirements; this bacterium plays a negative role in the microbial enhanced oil recovery. Bacillus licheniformis produced biosurfactants that act as antimicrobial agents against the sulphate reducing bacteria, thus reducing the growth of the sulphate reducing bacteria at different concentrations. This bacterium can be used as a bio-control agent against sulphate reducing bacteria to control the production of hydrogen sulphide which results in the souring of the crude oil. Gomaa (2013) further showed that biosurfactants can be used to treat many diseases and therapeutic agents, since biosurfactants are anti-adhesive to pathogens.
3.12.2 Oxidase Test On a filter paper or cotton bud, pick the desired colonies from the agar plate. Then, using a dropper, take the oxidase reagent and drop it on to the filter paper and observe for colour changes. The blue colour appearance indicates positive reaction whereas if there are no changes, then it’s a negative reaction. 3.12.3 Genus Verification using TCBS agar The TCBS medium, known as Thiosulfate Citrate Bile Salts Sucrose Agar is a recommended selective medium which allows the growth of bacteria belonging to the genera Vibrio. TCBS agar was prepared for about 100ml and poured into petri plates, after solidifying, pure colonies of bioluminescent bacteria was streaked.
Introduction and Experimental Objectives The aim of this experiment was to understand the function and formation of biofilms in bacteria and explore their role while infection occurs in the host. Biofilms have become more prevalent in hospitals and adhere to instruments used in medical procedures and even dry objects in hospitals, for example hospital curtains. The bacteria that form these biofilms can be dangerous to humans, for example Staphylococcus aureus, a methicillin-resistant bacteria.  Biofilms are a group of microbial cells that are surrounded by a polymeric matrix including proteoglycans, peptidoglycans and polysaccharides located outside the cell that can allow the growth of the pathogens to slow down, allow them to attach to surfaces, defend them from the immune system and enable the nutrition of the pathogen. In this experiment, to stain the biofilm, Crystal Violet was used as biofilms contain peptidoglycans in their matrix.
Sodium Nitrate is called Nitratine when it is in a mineral state. 3.3. USES OF SODIUM NITRATE Sodium Nitrate is used in manufacturing smoke bombs. The sample preserved in a small water bottle deformed the bottle and expanded it. This proves it is viable product in the manufacture of gun powder and smoke bombs.
Lab-experiment immunity and bacteria- How do they react? Research question: How does the bacteria Enterococcus Faecium SF 68 demonstrate resistance against the following antibiotics: Oxacillin, Climdacylin, Penicillin-G, Amikacin, Lincocymin, Erythromycin, Cephazolin, Mezlocillin ? Terminology used: Bacterium: Singular form of bacteria, one single individual. A bacterium an organism that possesses one single cell and is very adaptable to most environments. A bacterium contains only a single chromosome, but posses more sections of DNA known as plasmids, that are spreading all around the bacteria in an area called the cytoplasm.
Research question: In this experiment we will use 6 different antibiotics which are Mezlocillin,Cefazolin,Lincomycin,Penicillin,Erythromycin,and Oxacillin on these two bacteria that is Bacillus subtilis and Micrococcus luteus and see the result which antibiotic will work better on which bacteria. We will put the bacteria on agar-agar plate with the antibiotic and leave plate for a week to get the result how effectively the antibiotic have work on the bacteria. Background on antibiotic: Bacillus subtilis:It can be easily found as it in soil,human and the gastrointestinal. It can withstand extreme environmental condition( e.g heat, cold etc). It can be tough and have a shaped of a rod like structure.
If these feeds have a high level of nitrate, add non-nitrate sources of feed (which is also analysed) to the ration. A chemical analysis of the water supplies is also recommended and any adjustments to the ration must take into account the nitrate contribution of the water. By ensiling or allowing high nitrate pastures to set seed, the nitrate levels will be reduced by approximately 40 to 60%. The cutter heads of machinery can be raised during harvesting to leave the more hazardous stalk bases on the field. A high grain diet fed with a high nitrate forage has a protective effect in ruminants because the carbohydrates enhance the conversion of nitrate to ammonia, which is used by ruminal bacteria to produce microbial protein, and nitrite production is thus reduced.
Antibacterial activity of marine sponges The sponge Aurora globostellata was found to have antibacterial activity against Vibrio cholarae, Klebsiella pnemoniae, Salmonella typhi, Candida albicans, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the biological activity has been tested with the crude extract and the inhibition zone observed with the crude extract were (12.66±0.66 mm) for Candida albicans, (14.00±0.57) for Salmonella typhi (K.Chairman et al., 2012). The strains of different fouling bacteria namely, Pseudomonas chlororaphis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis, Pseudomonas putida , Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus cereus were tested against different marine sponges for antibacterial activity with the crude extract. The sponge Oceanapia fistulosa and Fasciospongia cavernosa showed high inhibition zone against the strains, whereas the sponge Aurora globostellata was found to be with low activity when compared with other sponge types (Limna Mol VP et al., 2010). The sponge Callyspongia subarmegera found in the south coast of India taxonomically identified using spicules arrangement and taxonomic keys by Dr.P.A.Thomas and the partial DNA sequence of the sponge has been submitted to GenBank. The sponge has been extracted with methanol and tested for antibacterial activity against fish pathogens, and the extract was found to inhibit bacterial growth (Aishwarya MS et al.,
Another type of antibiotics is which attack the cell membrane. Such as in Benslimit and Bastrsin. The antibiotics are one of the most useful thing that the scientists discovered. Because now, it is a big reason to the treatment and they use it to the treatment, and they use it a lot now days . How did scientists discover antibiotics?