Bioecological Model Of Human Development

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Natural Disasters
A disaster is a time-limited complex emergency situation with acute onset that affects a significant number of people and may be of natural, technological or human causes (Kar 2007, Bowman 2011,Briere 2000, Clettenberg 2011).
The world has experienced several natural disasters in recent years, affecting millions of people including children – earthquakes in Haiti, China, Pakistan and Iran, tsunami in Japan and Indonesia, hurricane in the United States and cyclones and super typhoon in Myanmar and the Philippines. These extreme disasters destroyed millions of dollars worth of properties and infrastructure and caused death of millions of people. Traumatic events during natural disasters such as experiencing damage to their
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The bioecological model of human development is defined as “the phenomenon of continuity and change in the biopsychological characteristics of human beings, both as individuals and as a group” (Brofenbrenner and Morris, 2006). This model of development has four defining properties: 1) Process, 2) Person, 3) Context and 4) Time. Process is the core of the model and involves the interaction between the individual and the environment, termed proximal processes. These proximal processes primarily drive human development but its influence on human development varies, depending on the characteristics of the Person, the Context and Time…show more content…
Physiologic reactions such as gastro-intestinal, cardiovascular, respiratory and neurologic symptoms may be present (Gaffney, 2008). Elevated pulse rates and blood pressure, increased muscle tension and hypervigilance may be observed as related to chronic stress (Little, 2011). There are evidences that prolonged exposure to trauma may result to decreased brain size and functioning (Little, 2011, DeBellis, etc 1999, Masten, 2012) Cognitive processes such as attention, concentration, orientation and memory may be affected, causing difficulties in school (Gaffney 2008). Distorted cognition and irrational beliefs in order to make sense of the traumatic event may also be observed in children (Little 2011), the most common of which is blaming themselves (Cohen, Mannarino and Deblinger, 2006). It is common for children to develop certain fears, such as fears of separation and abandonment or recurrence of the traumatic event, and feel unsafe. They may also feel helpless, sad and experience trauma-related guilt or even anger. Regression and reenactment of trauma in play may also be observed (Gaffney, 2008) Unwanted intrusive thoughts were also reported in children following natural disasters (Sprung,

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