Biofuel Advantages And Disadvantages

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The need for fuels is increasing day by day. In the year 1973 the first oil crisis was witnessed by OPEC. In India the demand for the petroleum products is growing at a rate of 7% per annum. Biofuels can be a substitute for the fossil fuels.
The inflammable substances produced by the action of microbes that can be used to produce energy are called biofuels. They are being produced from wastes or organic sources by the action of microbes. The main advantage of biofuel is they don’t release carbon-di-oxide during combustion, thus helping in the control of air pollution.

There are certain species of plants, which accumulate the hydrocarbons of high molecular weight. They are commonly known as petro-plants or petroleum
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BIO-HYDROGEN Hydrogen gas produced from the photosynthetic organisms and from wastes by microbial fermentation is called Bio-Hydrogen. Green plants, algae and cyanobacteria are capable of producing hydrogen during light reactions of photosynthesis.
A. Photoproduction of Hydrogen In photosynthetic microbes, hydrogen production takes place in the electron transport chain. Ferridoxin accepts electrons from the electron transport system and gives to the hydrogenase enzyme, green algae, Ascophyllum nodosum which reduces H+ ions into H2. This type of H2 production occurs in Chlamydomonas, Chlorella and red algae such as Ceramium rubrum, Chondrus crispus, Porphyra, Corallina etc. all these algae contains Hydrogenase enzymes for hydrogen production in their cells.
B. Microbial Fermentation
Hydrogen can be produced from microbial activities on organic biomass, under oxic circumstances. This process happens in two steps. Initially thermophillic bacterium converts the biomass into acetic acid. Then, the purple non-sulfur bacterium converts the acetic acid into hydrogen.
i. Halobacterium halobium is one of the important hydrogen producers. It absorbs light with the help of them purple pigment bacteriorhodopsin. This bacteria prefers anaerobic environment for carrying on the production of hydrogen. It also releases CO2 with
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The energy locked up in the chemical constituents of plant biomass is said to be Biomass Energy or Bio-Energy. Conversion of plant biomass into simple chemical that produce energy is called biomass conversion. Biomass of renewable wastes can be used to produce energy. The organic matters of plant origin thrown away by household, commercial sectors are sources of bio-energy. If such wastes are left untreated they would cause pollution. The following are the chief plant wastes thrown in the environment that can be used as energy
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