Biogenic Amines Essay

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2. REVIEW OF LITERATURE 2.1. Biogenic Amines: 2.1.1. Origin of biogenic amines: Pipek et al. (1992) recorded that biogenic amines are compounds commonly present in living organisms in which they are responsible for many essential functions. They are present in low concentrations in human, animals and plants for regulating functions, acting on the nervous system. Therefore, biogenic amines are naturally found in many foods including meat and can be produced in high amounts by microorganisms through the activity of amino acid dccarboxylases. They can also formed by autolytic proteolysis of meat enzymes. Histamine is formed from histidine, cadaverinc from lysine and putrescine from ornithin. Davidek and Davidek (1995) stated that biogenic amines are normally formed in food as a consequence of the metabolic process during storage, spoilage or ripening. After degradation of proteins either by autolysis or by bacterial proteolysis, free amino acids are formed which act as precursors of biogenic amine with the aid of decarboxylase enzymes. Straub et al. (1995) mentioned that the biogenic amines in foods are mainly formed by amino acid decarboxylation of bacteria. During a fermentation process the protein breakdown products, peptides…show more content…
Histamine, putrescine, cadaverine, tyramine, tryptamine, β phenylethylamine, spermine and spermidine are considered to be the most important biogenic amines occurring in foods. The factors which influence the formation of biogenic amines in foods include the availability of free amino acids; the presence of micro-organisms that can decarboxylate these amino acids and the favorable conditions of such micro-organisms for the growth and production of their

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