3. Explain how genes, chromosomes, DNA, and genomes all relate to one another and their importance to psychology. Genes are the biochemical units of heredity that makes up the chromosomes; a segment of DNA capable of synthesizing a protein. Chromosomes are threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes. DNA is a complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosome.
Also, cells make up tissues, organs, and body systems. Body systems interact with each other to maintain homeostasis. To start, let 's talk about what DNA actually is. DNA looks like a long spiral staircase. That structure is called a double helix.
The synaptonemal complex is a protein complex, which can mediate the crossing over among homologous chromosomes (Peoples,T.L. 2002). It consists of three important parts, the lateral element, the central element and the transverse element. During the leptotene stage, the SYCP2 and SYCP3 proteins form axial elements, lateral element and precursors. The SYCP1 protein contains a carboxy-terminal domain and an amino-terminal domain that are necessary for interaction with lateral and central elements, respectively.
Amir Ahemedin Ms.Buckley Genetics 11/06/15 Transformation of E.coli Lab Purpose The purpose of this lab is to genetically engineer the E.coli strain by introducing two genes, the green fluorescent protein gene (GFP) and the ampicillin resistant gene (AMP). Then observe whether or not the E.Coli strain would take up these genes and become fluorescent. Background Information In this lab, bacterial transformation was one of the three processes that occurred when genetic material is introduced to a bacterial cell. Bacterial transformation is important because it allows for the cloning and movement of DNA between strains. This transformation usually occurs within plasmids, which are closed circular molecules made up of double stranded DNA.
Ethics Case Study 1 Genetic information is found in each part of our cell. Chromosomes contain many genes, a section of DNA. These genes have a coding system using adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine, which are strung together in a long chain to create a unique DNA sequence. Different genes control the development of special characteristics of an organism. With genetic testing, a person can see their specific genetic code.
The CRISPR system has 2 key parts. Part one is an enzyme called CAS-9, this is basically a pair of molecular scissors that can cut the two strands of DNA at a specific location in the genome so that bits of DNA can then be added or removed. The second part is a piece of RNA called guide RNA, this includes a small piece of pre-designed RNA sequence located within a longer RNA strand. The strand part binds to DNA and the pre-designed sequence ‘guides’ Cas9 to the right part of the genome. This makes sure that the Cas9 enzyme cuts at the right point in the genome.
McClintock conducted many experiments and contributed to a vast amount of research which helped discover new processes in the future. McClintock main work specialized in the genetics of maize and she conducted numerous experiments relating to that field. One key experiment involved her observing the hereditary characteristics of corn, specifically the color of corn kernels. Many characteristics were determined by hereditary due to their genes. Their genes are stored in chromosomes inside their cells’ nuclei according to McCintock.
One of the focuses of this semester was the ability to identify biological processes that require energy and explain why they require energy. In the work I completed I demonstrated being able to accomplish this. This occurred in several different projects, including the cellular respiration lab involving the respiration rate of germinating seeds, the potato core lab and the photosynthesis lab. In these labs, we were able to identify the biological processes that required energy for the different processes to take place to allow germination to occur. As the main focus of all of these labs was testing a
Every field has its own set of specialized unique vocabularies, and for those people who are in the same field, we call them discourse community. According to “ Discourse Community” by Eric Borg, “A discourse community is the discussion and analysis in applied linguistics these groups are gathered into communities.” (1) In other words, a discourse community is a group of people who share commonalities in the same field that they specialize in. Biotechnology Innovation Organization is one of the discourse community that “focuses on biocellular process to develop technologies and products that are beneficial to living things and our planet”(bio.org). To be more specific, this is also a trade association of biotechnology in the world, the members
Among these, there is the nucleus that contains most of the genetic material (DNA) of the cell. Here occur the DNA duplication and the first steps in decoding genetic information. In all eukaryotic cells, there are also: the endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi apparatus,
From that point on, new nucleotides are added to each of the original strands (A to T, C to G) until the result is two identical sequence copies of DNA. 3. How is DNA information used to synthesize polypeptides? A gene or protein is used to make polypeptides. In order to create this gene, transcription and translation must take place to create a protein from DNA.
The gene that encodes the HGD enzyme was cloned in 1996 that is when they opened the era of molecular genetics of AKU. We now know that HGD gene consists of 14 eons (which are the coding parts of the gene) and 13 introns (which are the non-coding parts of the gene). The HGD gene has a tissue specific expression, particularly in the liver, kidneys, small and large intestines, prostate and the brain. Increased activity in the liver and kidneys has been attributed to metabolic activity of these organs in the
What role does the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) play in producing a DNA Profile? PCR amplifies the regions of DNA with short tandem repeats and uses primers with fluorescent labels. This works by replicating the region of DNA several times. The same region is also amplified on both chromosomes, however they are different sizes, which are then put into gel
Furthermore, Acinetobactor baylyi ADP1 like most organisms undergoes a process known as DNA recombination, where two complementary DNA strands cross and exchange portions of DNA. During recombination, a structure known as a Holliday Junction forms and must be resolved, completing the exchange of DNA (Aravind et al. 2000). Recombination is a crucial mechanism in both gene amplification and deletion. Specifically, ADP1 contains a protein called YqgF, a putative Holliday Junction Resolvase, due to its structural similarity to a known resolvase named RuvC (Aravind et al.
An operon is a part of DNA found in bacteria that controls gene regulation. Operons are controlled by an on switch known as the promoter. The Promoter is a place where the protein RNA polymerase binds. RNA polymerase is an enzyme that binds to DNA during transcription and unravels the DNA strands. RNA polymerase also transcribes the sequence of a messenger RNA (mRNA) molecule.