V. SUMMARY OF THE ARTICLE. Dr. Francesca Filbey’s article highlights the brain and how it is biologically wired in adults and juveniles with addictions, whether it is alcohol or drugs. Filbey (2013) discusses how a person is vulnerable (family history) or biologically (brain impulses) prone to addiction, as well as what kind of treatments can be done to help those that suffer from addiction. She analyzes different studies relating to each area and how effective they were. For those who are vulnerable to addiction, interviews were done with people who had a family history and those who didn’t have a family history. Interviews were also done with patients who were regular drinkers (those who drank every once in a while) as opposed to patients …show more content…
In order to study biological addictions, juveniles were tested using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, better known as AUDIT. The results found that those with low scores were at risk for heavy alcohol use. The treatment for addiction varies but Filbey took a look at drug-addicted individuals and their brain activity during times of rest and when an addict might relapse (based on test scores). For those addicts who suffer from alcoholism, they may develop symptoms from alcohol dependency. Anxiety is a huge factor and has been studied in those who do have alcohol dependency and those who do not have alcohol dependency. Connecting the brain and addiction has helped find effective treatments for these patients. However, studies are still being done on addicts and the brain’s response to addiction. According to Filbey, “Future work can expand on this knowledge by determining individual differences, such as genetic and environmental factors, that influence the addiction connectome” (Filbey, 2013, p. …show more content…
COMMENTARY. This article was very interesting to me because I am majoring in Psychology. The brain is fascinating and especially when it comes to addiction and how people become addicted, whether they have a family history or have biological impulses. Filbey wrote about different studies that were conducted on addiction and the brain. It’s fascinating to look online at these images and know that doctors are able to figure out how a person can become addicted. I think that many addictions are a little bit of family history and biological. My boyfriend has battled alcohol addiction since he was 15 and he’s now 33 and getting over his addiction. He tried counseling and AA but told me that neither of them were working, which I found hard to believe but when a person is battling addiction they will find any excuse to not go. I credit myself for helping him realize what he was doing to himself, and once he was diagnosed with CHF (heart failure) that really opened his eyes to the effects of alcohol on his body. He does come from a family line of alcoholism but he also was biologically addicted to it as well. I also come from a family of alcoholics but I’m not biologically addicted to drinking. I believe that an addict should have someone in their life that is willing to work with them, all though it can be frustrating and aggravating at the same time. Filbey spoke to addicts about their vulnerability to alcohol and/or drugs, but I’m not sure how accurate those interviews
In the article they discuss how teens become addicted more easily, “Their brain chemistry is tuned to be responsive to everything in their environment. … “But this can work in ways that are not so good. Take alcohol, for example. Or nicotine, cannabis, cocaine, ecstasy.” (Knox, The Teen Brain: It's Just Not Grown Up Yet).
Case declares, “I’m a drug addict, Cath. Stimulants. Central nervous systems stimulants. Extremely powerful central system stimulants.” (Gibson 129-130)
A man begging for money on the street, a dirty man drinking cheep liquor from a brown paper bag, or maybe even someone in prison. Most addictions don’t fit these stereotypes so the addict can often fool themselves into believing they don 't have a problem. We’re often mislead on the actual definition of addiction because of these stereotypes, and tend to limit the factors of addiction to drugs and alcohol because of how typical they are in todays world.
Perspectives are often prejudiced by preconceived notions. Society has historically communicated that addicts are morally negligent people without any inclination to cease their destructive behavior and that the addiction itself is produced because of a character flaw or a weakness. Citing the addict’s seemingly careless attitude toward the financial burden and pain and suffering they arbitrarily cause others as proof of their imagined personality imperfections. As with numerous other things, unfortunately, experience is the best teacher. Before my personal journey with a drug-addicted child, I also held to the belief that an addict was an addict by choice and could stop the abuse by simply making the decision to.
Here is yet another generation left broken. Unfortunately, alcoholism is a cycle means the children of people with substance abuse issues will often become addicts themselves, thus, creating another broken generation. Substance abuse is a growing issue in America; therefore, there is a rise in the prevalence of the following symptoms: depression, anxiety, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Doctor Sarah William in her article “What Happens to Children of Alcoholic Parents?” explains that approximately 30 million adolescents are decedents of addicts. This becomes 30 million human beings with an increased risk for psychological issues, as well as, many other conditions.
Additionally, drug addiction alters the dopamine systems natural levels, and results in the body being unable to balance the levels of dopamine due to the reduction of dopamine available for release. In conclusion, dopamine receptor gene has been attributed to an increase in the propensity for drug addiction, alcoholism, and thrill seeking behavior (Beaver, 2013). Reward Dominance Theory The study of neurology and neurotransmitters has led to the creation of the neurobiological theory known as the reward dominance theory (Walsh et al., 2012). The behavioral activating system and the behavioral inhibition system are two of the principal systems of behavioral control located within the brain (Walsh et al., 2012) .The
Next, the disease theory states, an individuals addiction is causes by a physiological deficit which makes an individual unable to tolerate the drug. For example, certain individuals are more susceptible to cocaine than others, depending on the individual’s bodies responsiveness to the drug. One may be more easily addicted if their body produces a more reinforcing or rewarding response when a particular drug is taken. In addition, the learning and behavioral theory suggest addiction is learned both through observation and vicarious reinforcement of direct experience. In other words, individuals learn through observation that addictive behaviors can be used to escape from pain, cope with stress, or even deal with depression.
The major-ity of binge drinkers do not depend on alcohol, and are able to function perfectly without it in their blood-streams. What is important to note, is a binge drinker’s pattern of overdrinking when they consume alco-hol. Because they may be able to avoid alcohol for a significant period of time, but when they are on a binge they often cannot stop. A study by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NI-AAA) found that young adults ages 18 to 25 are the most likely to have problems with alcohol. The same study says that young adults are more likely to engage in binge drinking.
Addiction, derived in the late sixteenth century from a Latin word addictus, simply means the fact or condition of being addicted to particular substance or activity (Oxford Dictionaries, 2015). According to Albery (2006), addiction is as a term used to describe a person’s physical and psychological dependency on a behaviour, which may or may not involve the ingestion of a mood-altering psychoactive drug such as alcohol, nicotine, cannabis, opiates or amphetamines. World Health Organization defines addiction, with emphasis on drug or alcohol, as repeated use of a psychoactive substance or substances, to the extent that the user, who is generally referred to as an addict, is periodically or chronically intoxicated, shows a compulsion to take
Some things are hard to let go of, and in some cases, drugs is the vice that people cannot turn their backs on. Drug abuse is rampant today as the availability and advanced technology today enables users to get the substance easier. In consequence, these drugs turn the users’ lives a 180 or 360 degrees around. The effects of drug abuse is a determining factor to one’s future as it causes psychological effects, lifestyle change, and internal damage. Frequent drug use can cause a person to desire it regularly and this poses a psychological threat.
Addiction begins as a result of using a substance that have a measurable impact on the reward center of the brain—but it doesn’t end there. The repeated stimulus of this reward center is sufficient to effect a change in the functionality of the brain itself –as the procedure of stimulating the recompense circuitry, so to speak, becomes of paramount importance above all other aspects of an otherwise standard life. Sleeping, eating even sexual activity can take a back bench to obtain and using
All these characteristics led to the conclusion that drug addiction is a chronic, relapsing brain disease that is characterized by compulsive drug seeking and use. It is considered as a brain disease because drugs change the structure of the brain, and how it works. Every drug affects different systems of the brain. For example, in the case of cocaine, as the brain is adapted in the presence of the specific drug, brain regions responsible for judgment, decision-making, learning, and memory begin to physically change, making certain behaviors “hard-wired.” In some brain regions, connections between neurons are pruned back.
FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Parental influence and family backgrounds play a vigorous role of paramount importance in socializing children. According to Dawson & Grant (1998) children of alcoholics are at high risk for developing problems with alcohol and other drugs; they often do poorly at school, live with pervasive tension and stress, have high levels of anxiety and depression and experience coping problems. Apparently, children sometimes grow up in these families with the understanding that such “behavior” is normal. For instance; if one has a parent with an alcohol and drug use disorder greatly increases the chances that an individual will develop one at some point in their life and this individual will live to know that