The theories it pulls from are social learning theory, excitation transfer theory, script theory, cognitive neoassociation and social interaction theory (Allen, Anderson & Bushman, 2018). The general aggression model defines aggression and violence as two separate modules. Aggression is seen as any intent to harm someone “who is motivated to avoid that harm” (Allen et al., 2018, p. 75). While violence stems from aggressive behaviours intended to result in severe damage including death (Anderson & Groves, 2013). There are two essential components to the general aggression model: distal factors and proximate factors (Allen & Anderson, 2017).
Different traditions in psychology found a connection between low self-esteem and aggression; for example, Humanistic psychologists as Rogers (1961), and Rosenberg (Rogers’ student, 1965), and neo-Freudians psychologist as Horney (1950) and Adler (1956). Despite the amount of theoretical thesis about this theory, often the consistency of the results obtained from studies and researches, did not entirely confirmed it. That is why, in order to support that low self-esteem is cause of aggression, the research taken in account in this essay (“Low Self-Esteem Is Related to Aggression, Antisocial Behaviour and Delinquency”, M. B. Donnellan, K. H. Trzesniewski, R. W. Robins, T. E. Moffitt, A. Caspi, 2005), extends previous researches in several ways. It is divided in three different studies: the first one investigates the relation between self-reports, teacher ratings of self-esteem, and self-reports of delinquency in a sample of 292 11 and 14 years old participants. Self-Esteem, Delinquency, supportive parenting and academic achievement are measured; The second study includes non-self-report measures of externalizing problems, specifically, teacher and parent rated antisocial behaviour.
A study by Rekers of a sample of transsexual’s males found that the main family factor that was linked with gender dysphoria is males having no farther figure in their lives, as 75% of male to female transsexuals had an absent farther. This suggests that the lack of a male role model could be a social factor which has an influence on gender dysphoria. This is further supported by other studies which also found a majority of transsexual males having an absent father as well as an overly close relationship with their mother. This suggests that it could be the lack of male role model and close mother relationship which leads them to develop female gender identity, therefore demonstrating
For evolutionary approach, a weakness is that a lot of research involves bias and hypothetical situations, and consequently, results might not be adequate to real-life situations. Subsequently, research frequently omits homosexual context, so the results cannot be applied to all members of the population. Additionally, it is probably impossible to predict if mutations are going to be adaptive for current and future generations. To conclude, physiological approach, as well as evolutionary approach, has its strengths and weaknesses. Possibly, for best understanding of differences in personality, it is vital to consider as many perspectives as possible to find the most fitting
Environmental manipulations can reverse brain risk factors for crime (Raine, 2008). Aggressive individuals are known to have low serotonin, medications that increase serotonin such as Prozac can be used to lower the aggressive nature in adults and children (Raine, 2008). Society is still reluctant to use medication to treat aggressive and criminal behavior and most major concerns are the responsibility and punishment. If a murderer for instance suffers from brain impairments predisposing him to implosive violence, should we hold them accountable for their behavior (Raine, 2008)? New research in brain imaging and molecule genetics allows for the idea of specific genes resulting in structural and functional brain impairments that predispose violent and psychopathic behavior (Raine, 2008).
A range of behaviors which can lead to both physical and psychological harm to oneself, other, or objects in the environment is known as aggression. There are a number of ways to express aggression, such as physically, mentally and verbally. The basic assumption of aggression is that all behaviors represent an attempt to adapt to the environment and survival and mastery/control are served as the two basic needs that encourage successful adaptation. And humans are not innately aggressive will be discussed after going through what is aggression. The type of level of intent that causes an aggressive behavior creates the distinction between two types of aggression, instrumental and affective aggression.
I interviewed two members of the female gender. While my interviewees disagreed as to whether gender has to do with biological factors, both only said that there were two: male and female. Moreover, all of the people I a different gender (that isn’t exciting, it is just a similarity I noticed). The interviewees both felt social class was a more significant obstacle than gender. One interviewee claimed that she was not affected by issues of gender, and another one claimed that issues of gender are not still relevant in the United States today.
For example, psychology defines violence as a subtype of aggression (behaviour performed by an individual with the intention of harming another, who is believed by the individual to be motivated to avoid the harm), generally used to denote extreme forms of aggression such as rape, murder and assault. (Anderson, 2000) Though common sense would often describe any form of aggressive behaviour as a form of violence. Precision is key in this study, thus each form of mental illness is recognised as being different from the others as they all present different functional difficulties and complexities, there is also an understanding that the degree of impairment of an individual often fluctuates throughout his or her life. Common sense on the other hand does not take into account any of these differences, and generalises them. Furthermore psychological theories are questioned and tested in a variety of ways, to evaluate their validity in different circumstances.
This includes marriage, employment, and insurance. Insurers have a strong interest in treating a genetic predisposition as a pre-existing condition and to exempt it from coverage. But this would be manifestly unfair since there is nothing that a person can do to avoid being affected by such a predisposition. The positions in the literature vary, nonetheless, with respect to the degree to which the differentiation between, and the use of, classifiers are deemed offensive, Somek (2003). Marital Discrimination is also a form of genetic discrimination.
Non-Eurasian people experienced prejudice against them because they were believed to lacked Eurasian mental, moral and physical superiority. Darwin, a scientist, developed a theory of evolution which dominated most fields in science because it includes an idea of ancient hierarchy of human races. Eugenics is then building on the theory of evolution by Darwin by believing that there are differences in people of different races when it comes to their mental, physical and moral characteristics. The Eugenics movement became popularized by Francis Galton and Karl Pearson, sociologists in 1890 and in 1896 a marriage law was passed prohibiting people with a “feeble-mind” from getting married; this was seen as the first steps towards a pro-eugenic state. Herbert Spencer, an English philosopher, who is seen as the father of Social Darwinism coined the idea of ‘survival of the fittest’ which