The conventional methods are expensive and are not very effective. Thus bioremediation is the need of the hour. Bioremediation uses living organisms to degrade or remove the pollutants from a contaminated site. It is defined as “Treatment that uses naturally occurring organisms to break down hazardous substances into less toxic or nontoxic substances” (EPA). The environment has the inbuilt tendency to degrade the waste which is known as intrinsic bioremediation.
Therefore, worldwide there is a continuous interest in development of new, effective and inexpensive techniques for the removal of pollutants. Among them bioremediation have been broadly studied. Bioremediation involves “clean-up of pollution from air, surface water, groundwater and soil, using biological processes,
In addition, increased rate of aeration in the bioreactor by daily turning tend to decrease CO2 levels in the compost, which in turn tend to increase pH. After primary stabilization, ammoncium formation was very low due to the low rate of organic matter degradation. During the nitrification process, the nitrifying bacteria reduced the pH of the medium due to the liberation of hydrogen ions. Once nitrification had begun after the thermophilic stage, pH decreased, therefore, pH values of the compost were directly related to nitrification (Kalamdhad et al., 2009). To control the pH, our design of bioreactor only uses sterilizable
According to Holm-Nielsen et al. (2009), The objectives of conducting anaerobic digestion on animal manure is to convert organic residues into two main products, they are biogas (a form of bioenergy) and to generate digestate (leftover of anerobic digestion). Sustainability may be achieved by biological treatment of solid, liquid, and gaseous wastes. Product-oriented bioconversion processes in facilities by making use of advanced technology can treat biodegradable wastes. Anaerobic digestion, fermentation, and composting is the most common methods to treat biodegradable wastes (Jereb,
Many possible synthesis routes exist for bio based derivation; however they are limited mainly by their economic feasibility. A selection of routes is presented below. 1.2.2 Biological Synthesis using E.coli. Genetically altered E.coli cells can convert glucose to cis, cis muconic acid  which is then hydrogenated to form adipic acid. Given that adipic acid must be produced in bulk, the cell cultures would not be feasible for such large volume processing.
The conventional techniques for removing heavy metals from industrial wastewaters are precipitation , adsorption , reduction , membrane process , ion exchange  and solvent extraction . In addition, these conventional treatment processes are limited due to technological or economic constraints. However, biosorption represent attractive and cost effective alternative for decontamination of ionic pollutants such as heavy metal ions. Bacteria, fungi, algae and agricultural waste are considered as the class of biosorbent . Several recent publications were utilized for various inexpensive and locally abundantly available biosorbents like barley straw , peanut hulls , neem bark , waste tea leaves ,sago waste,hazel nut shell ,cocoa shells , tea waste , palm kernel fibre  and orange peels .
When farmland is ploughed, topsoil is exposed and may be blown away by the wind or washed away by rain. This reduces the available soil for farming and reduces the quality of the soil. Soil which is blown or washed away may go into water ways and contaminate drinking water, or cause sedimentation of waterways. This transfer of soil is exacerbated if there is no longer
Pretreatment is needed to change the biomass macroscopic and microscopic size and structure and also submicroscopic chemical composition and structure so that hydrolysis of carbohydrate fraction to monomeric sugars can be obtained more rapidly and with higher yields (Sun and Cheng, 2002; Moiser et al., 2005; Tucker et al., 2003). Pretreatment of cellulosic biomass in cost effective manner is a major challenge of cellulose to ethanol technology research and development. Native lignocellulosic biomass is extremely recalcitrant to enzymatic digestion. Therefore, a number of thermochemical pretreatment methods
TECHNOLOGIES AND SOLUTIONS: INTRODUCTION: Afforestation can be the one of the most significant way out for the development of gullied or ravinous land. The procedure for this is different for different types of ravines. Agroforestry consists of minor and slender gulliee. Silvipasture is suitable for medium and shallow gullies. Whereas permanent vegetation is the solution for the deep and narrow gullies.