• These classifications do not account for people who have ‘atypical’ symptoms or those that do not clearly follow the ‘script. • Critics claim that categorical systems reduce humans to one-dimensional sources of data rather than encouraging practitioners to treat the whole person. • Critics also see these systems as tools for social control – giving mental health professionals control over people’s lives. 3. Explain two alternative frameworks for understanding mental distress.
This does not suggest that a person’s genes will cause heroin addiction or use, only that once a person has started to use heroin their genomic characteristics may cause them to be much more vulnerable to becoming addicted. After repeated use of heroin physical changes to nerve cells in the brain are apparent. In contrast there is no single causation factor identified for weather or not a person will become addicted to drugs (Fowler et al., 2007). “Drugs can alter important brain areas that are necessary for life-sustaining functions and can drive the compulsive drug abuse that marks addiction” (Volkow, 2009). A core concept of the biomedical medical model is that drug addiction is a brain disease that manifests over time after the voluntary use of heroin, this results in modifying brain mechanisms that control mood, perception and emotional states causing drug seeking behaviours that interfere with the functioning of the individual (Leshner, 1999).
The two main reasons that gave rise to the interest in biological basis of memory are that researchers became aware of the fact that many memory deficits arise from injuries to the brain. And the other reason was that they realized that psychological processes must have a physiological basis. In the past, researches were carried regarding the
Thus a routine where emotional concerns can often be dismissed in a way that prevents any further discussion on the topic. This can manifest itself through the preemptive reassuring of the patient before their main concerns have been voiced and also simply stating that a certain level of stress is expected. It is also possible the fact that patients do not reveal all of their concerns and the reasons for this may not be understood by the healthcare professional. Patients may hold back on voicing concerns for a number of reasons including not wanting to be a burden, concern that their issue is not legitimate and worrying that they will seem unknowledgeable. At the start of the encounter with the patient eye contact should be established and maintained regularly to demonstrate interest.
It can be considered as an option for certain cases but other more effective measures should be considered to tackle the problem regarding the aggressive behaviours of prison inmates. The patient (the prisoner) should have a say in whether or not he/she wants to take the medication or choose to participate in other rehabilitation methods such as counselling. Imprisonment should not be seen as a punishment, but rather is a way for people to change for
The Self-Regulatory Model (SRM) [1-4] is a cognitive-affective model that highlights the existence of both emotional components as well as cognitive components; both of these components alter the perception of disease threat and influence each other. It is the emotional element that distinguishes the SRM from other theoretical models which explain the perception of disease and treatment and which only take the cognitive and/or behavioral component in consideration (e.g., Health Belief Model, Theory of Reasoned Action, Theory of Planned Behavior). This parallel cognitive and emotional processing of the menace implied by the disease recommends using this model in studying cancer, an emotionally challenging disease for the patient and their entire
In Western cultures, the biomedical model is the medical paradigm used to diagnose and explain a person’s illness, corresponding to a malfunction of biological processes (McLennan, Manus & Spoonley, 2010). However, sociologists have criticised biomedicine;
The three dimensions of pain assessment instruments are also subject to misinterpretation. Healthy patients have difficulty on a line or a numerical value to meet their pain as a point of conceptualization the intensity of the pain. Difficulties in interpretation are rare when verbal rating scale is used. In addition, the use of certain words cannot be understood by patients or little interest in the individual descriptions of pain (D'Arcy, 2011). There is unlikely to support the coherence between the reported pain levels, for example, a patient may report pain as a numerical rating scale (NRS) and request analgesia.
ASSIGNMENT Psychology includes many approaches in studying explanations to human behavior and experiences. The subject is to be focused under different approaches, for instance: biological approach, cognitive approach, psychodynamic approach and behavioral approach. When focusing on the biological approach, it analyses the chemical activities in the brain and it also studies the reasons why we act the way we do and why we develop abnormal behavior. Biological psychologists relies more on medications and medical procedures. Cognitive approach is usually defined as the acquisition of knowledge.
Psychiatrists use a SPECT scan (brain scan that also investigates Parkinson’s disease) to look for abnormalities of blood flow in the brain. Pyromania is a mystery to psychologists and is very difficult to diagnose. Other disorders appear in patients with this syndrome such as substance abuse, OCD (Obsessive Compulsive Disorder), anxiety, and mood