The composition of the surrounding dictates the overall crime rate of the area. The theory is merged with a series of disadvantages that has led to the rise of criminal activities. The limitations are as discussed below: First, the theory does not recognize that there are individuals who are self-driven and cannot be compromised by the status of the surrounding community. When a literate person is taken through this theory, it may have some negative influence more so when they come from environments with such unethical behaviors. The aspect can easily interfere with the security concerns of a given area.
Deviance is considered a vagrant form of human activity, moving outside the more orderly currents of social life” (Erikson, 2013). Labeling theory is a major factor in criminal behavior. This theory gives insight on what can make an individual attracted to criminal behavior, opposed to wise decisions and acceptable behaviors. Kurbin shares with his readers that “ In contrast, labeling theory adopts a “ relativist” definition, assuming that nothing about a given behavior automatically makes it deviant. In other words, deviance is not a property of behavior, but rather that result of how others regard that behavior” (Chris E. Kubrin,
However, there are those who feel that just as the principle states, one is, and should be taken as a victim and the outcome could be either way: guilty or not guilty. In fact, this argument is supported by the many cases of malicious prosecutions and mistaken identities. The differences The due process model is pegged on the belief that it would be better if a criminal found innocent goes free rather than have one innocent person in jail. On the other hand, the crime control model argues that it is better to have a innocent person detained, questioned, tried and found innocent then let free than have a society full of criminals roaming
The use of drugs causes a juvenile to turn to deviant behavior. Strain theory proves that drug addiction can lead to a criminal way of life, due to the substances becoming addictive and becoming a need. Furthermore, this need makes the adolescent even more susceptible to the negative behavior that comes along with the addiction. Due to the juveniles young mind not being fully developed, early drug abuse gives the addict a higher chance of a life long battle with crime and other
“The major integrated theories of crime including multifactor theories, latent traits theories, and life-course theories or what are known as ‘developmental theories.’ Multifactor theories suggest that social, personal, and economic factors exert influence on criminal behaviour. Integrated theories have become popular; given the move away from the assumption that the world can be divided into criminals and non-criminals, hence the value of multi-factor theories and how practical it has become with computer tools to assist in the process. Latent trait theories assume that a number of people in the population have a personal attribute or characteristic that controls their inclination or propensity to commit crimes. This disposition or latent
responsibility of the individual committing or partaking in the crime. Though this is a common thought it is simply untrue because it eliminates many of the social and environmental factors that encourage deviant behavior. The truth is, society plays a significant role in whether or not deviant behavior stops or continues for a specific individual who has already committed a crime. Ideas and concepts under the Labeling theories emphasis society’s roles and states that, “efforts [of] social control (…) ultimately trigger processes that trap individuals in criminal careers” (Cullen, Agnew & Wilcox 2014). Essentially, society forces invasive labels and social reactions that then cause many Individuals with criminal past to create self-fulfilling
Though he was influenced by Darwin, Lombroso misunderstood his work and considered criminals evolutionary throwbacks of primitive forms (Mazzarello, 2011). Trait theory has evolved over time from Garofalo’s sociological tilt (crime is an immoral act that is injurious to society) to Enrico Ferri (focused on social and economic factors that motivate criminals) to a modern, biosocial trait theory, which theorizes each person is mentally and physically unique, does not possess equipotentiality (equal potential to learn and achieve), and has developed traits at birth or soon after that affect social functioning and affect criminal behavior. Physical, environmental, and social conditions work in concert to produce behavior. The last part of the theory states, instincts affect learning (rape or desire of males to control
Mostly the countries have been facing transnational threats, so called nontraditional security challenges, such as illegal migration, drug and human trafficking, gun running, smuggling of commodities and cross border terrorism and so forth. Transnational crime blurs the line between "crime" and "national security" because criminal organizations are now perceived as posing a national security threat to some countries as well as the international community. Officially demarcated borders cannot keep out transnational threats and such threats have not yet addressed because of some obstacles including mistrust and lack of regional cooperation. In an increasingly interconnected world, security issues are transnational and cannot be addressed effectively by individual states. Transnational threats require common efforts and joint action by governments across borders in order to be dealt with.
The view many are accepted to use prisons to indicate that certain forms of behavior will not be tolerated, and to protect them from those who refuse to play by the rules, has become a policy position that dares not speak its name. This has been put unchallenged over and over again as a paradoxical illustration of how the size of a prison reflects the level crime, not the victimhood of society. Incarceration is an effective program in regards to the regulation of crime rates due to a portrayal of how Tyrone Hoard presented the society the insufficiency of diversion programs as followed by statistical graphs and its persistence in criminal offering. A widespread use of incarceration manages the increase of crime rates, whereas alternatives in which the government has invested in this cognitive behavioral therapy is spineless. Tyrone Howard, who was a criminal given numerous opportunities for diversion programs rather than jailed due to drug charges, allegedly murdered New York Police Officer Randolph Holder.
3.2 Unemployment effect on crime An additional problem linked with interpreting the empirical connection between joblessness and crime concerns the direction of causation. To the magnitude that criminal activity decreases the employability of lawbreakers, through either a scaring influence on imprisonment or a superior unwillingness among the criminally initiated to accept genuine occupation, criminal activity may in turn contribute to observed joblessness growth and add to regional joblessness levels. Hence, in addition to difficulties associated with excluded variables, previous inferences might also be flawed owing to simultaneity prejudice. To be more specific, simultaneity upwardly prejudices OLS (Ordinary least Squares) evaluations on crime, (Raphael and Rudolf, 2001:261). 3.3 Unemployment effect on family