The fourth step of bone healing involves the balance between bone regeneration by osteoclast cell and new bone formation by osteoblast cell activity. The ongoing of the action of this 2 types of specific cells are vital for the fracture callus transformed into lamellar bone. According to Keramaris, Calori, Nikolaou, Schemitsch, & Giannoudis (2008), in order for the fracture bone healed properly, adequate blood supply and revascularization to the bone is required. The vascularization of the healing bone is regulated by the chemical mediator specifically named as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). This growth factor promotes both vasculogenesis, and angiogenesis whereby both action play a crucial part in the bone healing.
Abstract Tooth Regeneration is a procedure in the field of stem cell biology. Regenerative medicine has always contributed significantly in the field of dentistry; however, research is still ongoing. Different methods and various types of cells are vital in teeth regeneration. Periodontitis and pulpitis disease destroys teeth with periodontal repair. Various techniques are used to aid in the repair process.
Often, over time and when a tooth is missing, the underlying bone has a tendency to resorb, or melt away. When there is not enough bone to support the implant the dental surgeon will perform a bone graft procedure along with the dental implant placement. In some cases; the grafting would be performed first, then the placement of the implant would follow a few months later. With modern technology, bone could be regenerated in a particular situation to support the placement of implants. There are many materials available with unique advantages for different applications.
Intraoral X-rays: These types of Dental X-Rays are mostly taken in your life . These X-rays are very essential that provide lot of help to your dentist to identify caries, check the health of the tooth root and bone adjacent the tooth, check the condition of developing teeth, and check up the all-purpose health of your teeth and jawbone. Extraoral X-rays: These are also show teeth, but their main focus is the jaw and skull. Instead of finding caries or other diseases. These are used for looking of impacted teeth, examine development of the jaws in relation to the teeth, and to recognize potential problems between teeth and jaw and the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) or other bones of the face.
Protein folding in the cell is crucial for their function and existence of life. The ability of macro-molecules to assemble to three dimensional fold either with or without the assistance of cellular component has characteristic importance for a living system. It is important to understand the basis of folding mechanisms of proteins. Resolving protein folding mechanism and how folding processes are regulated is a challenging in the modern science. Protein needs to fold to their native or functional state is the most fundamental ansd common example of biological self-assembly.
The dental pulp tissue and periodontal tissues where more of mesenchymal stem cells are found in abundant are more commonly used as a therapeutic modality. The cells are differentiated based on their location or part of tooth. The stem cells extracted from periodontal ligament and also from dental pulp tissue are commonly applicable in regenerating tissues through tissue engineering, still more research has to be done to conclude the success and the risk factor and also to check for the outcome and Its availability other then tooth, in general the other sources of stem cells should be obtain. Research should also be done to use other cells, other then mesenchymal cells, the usage of epithelial cells has to be done as it possess an very important source for regenerating enamel tissue. Nevertheless, the outcome and the results and success of the existing stem cells studies are more encouraging and strongly supporting its application in the medical and dental field, and success of stem cells can set up a new era in replacing the missing tissues for the patients who are suffering due to loss of tooth and tooth
Abstract: A meniscus is a piece of cartilage found where two bones meet. This joint space distributes loads to protect the articular cartilage of the knee joint from too much stress. Injuries to these regions increase the risk for knee osteoarthritis, can disrupt regular function, and do not heal. The goal of meniscus tissue engineering is to use regenerated tissue in order to restore the normal function of the meniscus. The main purpose of this study is to design 3D scaffolds that can maintain the shape and structural components of the meniscus to provide support for cell-based meniscus regeneration.
Biotechnology have the following three critical research area • To provide the best catalyst in the form of improved organism, usually a microbe or pure enzyme. • To create optimal conditions through engineering for a catalyst to act • Downstream processing
Furthermore, bio-materials are also used by ophthalmologists for contact lenses etc. Auto-transplants i.e. transplant of body organs and tissues (skin etc.) to other parts of the body also come under the scope of bio-materials. Bio-materials are further used for artificial tissue regeneration, bone joint replacements,
Rational designs are related to biocatalysts because it directs evolution which results in very specific protein variants for the enzyme. The enzyme can therefore be engineered to have the desired properties. These properties include stability, activity, selectivity and the substrate specificity. In the present era, Biocatalysis is being implemented in chemical, agricultural, pharmaceutical and food industries. Despite being used on such a scale, the true potential of Biocatalysis is yet to be