Biomedical Ethics In Beauchamp And Childress

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The four main principles of biomedical ethics from the principles perspective of Beauchamp and Childress are respect for autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice. The specification of moral norms are precise metrics to determinant of a range of action guides people what moral action can be done based on rational decisions. The balancing of moral norms is a priority ranking or weight the norms against one another during events when one principle is violated more than the others (Biomedical ethic notes. Pdf and classroom notes). From the four principles, beneficence and nonmaleficence will be discussed in the following part of the essay. Beneficence is the duty to prevent harm; while non-maleficence is the duty to not cause any harm. For example, in general beneficent duties, all human beings have the same kind of duties to not intentionally kill someone. Harm is defined as counterfactual of what actual event was suppose to happen in a way someone was effect by the intention and resulted in worse situation than before such intention was put on to that person. Non maleficence will be explained in the later on part of the essay (classroom notes). James Rachels thinks this argument is invalid because ethic is determined by the group of people on what they choose to believe in. Rachels emphasizes on such relativism does not base on one person’s belief, but on multiple people’s thinking. Using his definition of cultural relativism is when a group of people agree on the

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