As per legal provisions (BMW management and Handling rules 1998), proper healthcare waste management include five steps, namely segregation of biomedical waste at the point of generation, treatment, storage, transportation and final disposals. Health personnel who are involved in handling BMW at different point of generation in hospital include doctors, nurses, lab technicians, ward boy etc Although there is increased global awareness among health care professionals about hazards and also appropriate management techniques, the level of awareness in Pakistan has been found to be unsatisfactory. Therefore, the present study is conducted to assess the level of Knowledge, attitude and practices of doctors, nurses, laboratory technicians, and sanitary staff regarding biomedical waste management in a private Hospital in Islamabad,
A wound is a disorder in the normal anatomical structure and function of living tissue which may be caused by physical, chemical, microbiological or immunological injury. Globally wounds also represent a significant burden on the patients and health care professionals or givers. Wound infection is also significant in that they are the most common nosocomial infection (Orrett, 2002) . Infection of the wound is the successful invasion, and proliferation by one or more organisms anywhere within the body’s sterile tissues and sometimes accompanied with pus formation (Calvin, 1998).Wound infection may result to prolong hospital stay, delay wound healing, increases cost of health care and morbidity in surgical patients (Orrett, 2002).. Wound infection with multiple organisms may even result to multiple organ failure or death of the patient when it becomes chronic.
TYPE OF DISEASE OR INFECTION Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important organisms that cause community-acquired skin and soft tissue infections as well as life-threatening nosocomial infections. S. aureus affects the bloodstream, skin, soft tissues and lower respiratory tracts. S. aureus is the leading cause of necrotizing pneumonia, bacteremia, infective endocarditis, osteoarticular, skin, soft tissue, pleuropulmonary, device-related and various surgical wound infections. The infections of skin and soft tissue could be boils, carbuncles, impetigo and cellulitis. If the infections get serious, manifestations could be ventilator‑associated necrotizing pneumonia, necrotizing fasciitis, endocarditis and sepsis.
4. REGULATION OF MEDICAL WASTE MANAGEMENT IN US 4.1. Definition [12, 13, 14] Regulated Medical Waste (RMW), also known as ‘Bio-Hazardous’ waste or 'infectious medical’ waste, is the portion of the waste stream that may be contaminated by blood, body fluids or other potentially infectious materials, thus posing a significant risk of transmitting infection. 4.2. Regulation [12, 13] EPA no longer plays a central role in Medical Waste regulation; the states and other federal agencies have taken on that duty.
In the examples of catheterization witnessed in the hospital, those three patients were placed at risk for the development of infection. The nursing intervention of catheterization if done improperly can impair the patient. Jan Powers states urinary tract infections account for 30% of hospital infections, and of the 30%, 70-80% are related to urinary catheters (Impact of an aseptic procedure). The four nursing literature pieces used consult three main factors in preventing complications related to urinary catheterization. The first factor is the duration of how long the catheter will remain in the patient.
Medical care is a priority in India but it isn’t addressed at the rate at which it should. Earlier, medical waste management in India was optional but it has now been made mandatory for all medical facilities. The waste that is generated has to be disposed of in the different color-coded bags. The waste can be stored up to 48 hours before it has to be collected and disposed of with care. The color-coded bags inform the people collecting the waste to dispose it off in the appropriate
Unsafe injections Unsafe injections practice is the main cause of transmission blood borne pathogens, for example, hepatitis B virus (HBV), Hepatitis C virus (HCV). In developing countries, the most common cause of HVC is unsafe injections. Unsafe injections happen through contaminated needles and the conditions of places where injections stored in it. In this case study, the ethical dilemma is related to unsafe injections. In this case study, there are two ethical dilemmas.
Abstract Introduction: Last few decades saw a Pap smear becoming synonymous with early detection of cervical carcinoma, leading to its rapid decline worldwide. However, newer screening modalities like liquid cytology have been embraced by the developed world. The relevance of the Pap smear in developing countries like India needs to be evaluated. Objectives: To assess the risk factors associated with cervical carcinoma. To correlate cyto-clinical–histopathological findings in the unhealthy cervix by Pap smear to determine its validity and feasibility.
INTRODUCTION Burn injury is a serious concern around the world.1 (saha SK 2011) In India the incidence of burn injuries are very common. In spite of recent advances in the health care practices related to burn wound management and infection control practices, still infection remain the main cause of mortality. Several reports states that nearly 75% of all deaths based in burns patients are due to infection.2(Vindenes H 1995) Moreover burn injuries are highly susceptible to colonization and infection which leads to various critical complications in the management of burn victims.2 (Vindenes H 1995) Further, these infected burn wounds causes delay in epidermal maturation and deep scar formation.3( Jewo PI 2011) Patients suffering with
It comprises of a multitude of components with valuable materials, most containing toxic substances that can have an adverse impact on the environment and human health. The facts mentioned before says it all. In country like India, coupled with inappropriate infrastructural facilities and procedures for its disposal and recycling has posted a significance importance of e waste management in India. Most people are not aware of the potential negative impact of the rapidly increasing use of monitors, computers and televisions. They pose serious health risk and when these products are placed in landfills.