According to Martini, F., Tallitsch, R., Nath, J., (2018), the ANS functions outside of our conscious awareness and makes routine adjustments in our body’s systems (Martini, Tallitsch, & Nath, 2018, p. 450). The autonomic nervous system helps maintain the homeostasis of our bodies by regulating body temperature and coordinating cardiovascular, repertory, digestive, excretory, and reproductive functions. Efferent axons innervate the visceral organs and the efferent nerve fibers and ganglia of the ANS organize in two systems or divisions. The sympathetic division and the parasympathetic division. The sympathetic division is most active during times of stress, exertion, or emergency, also known as “flight or fight”.
A. Theoretical Background: The nervous system is categorized into two different divisions: The central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The CNS mainly consists of the brain and spinal cord. The PNS consists of the nerve impulses that carry synapses to and from the spinal cord. It includes the cranial nerves such as ganglia, enteric plexuses and sensory receptors.
The nervous system is made up of two systems that work together to help the body function. One of the systems is the Central Nervous System (CNS) which consists of the spinal cord and the brain. The other system is the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) which is made up the nerves that connect to the rest of the body. Working together they both contribute to the wonder known as the nervous system, but how? (Better Health Channel, 2014).
The nervous system consists of two divisions; the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. The central nervous system is the combination of the nerves within the skull and spine, while the peripheral nervous system is the nervous system that goes everywhere inside (autonomic nervous system) and outside (somatic nervous system) around the body except skull and spine. The somatic nervous system has two kinds of nerves; afferent nerves that carry sensory signals from the external parts of the body to center, and efferent nerves which carry motor signals from central nervous system to muscular system. The autonomic nervous system also has afferent and efferent nerves and afferent nerves carry sensory signals from internal organs
To somewhat contradiction and agreement, Sacks states "some areas of the visual cortex may be reallocated and used to process sound and touch"(Sacks,330). In contrast to Johnson, it is clear that the pacemaker, our brain, allows the visual cortex to reallocate to heighten other senses, which allows the blind people to adjust their new way of life. However, to some extent, Sacks statement bolsters Johnson's case that self-organizing system is a very complex system, just like the complex structure of our brain, which acts as a pacemaker for us. The complexity of a structure is indeed dependent on how efficiently each component is able to carry out its functions, and structures which are deemed complex have different components which it is dependent upon to perform its functions. The idea of pacemaker itself cannot be disregarded in the making of
The nervous system is responsible for controlling how your body acts and what it does, such as talking, walking, breathing, learning, and swallow. It also controls how your body reacts when there is an emergency. As I mentioned earlier the nervous system is a very complicated subject to talk about as it is comprised of different levels of organization.
6.2. Empirical Studies on Teaching Learners with Down Syndrome through Synthetic Phonics Strategies Synthetic phonics as a practical and applicable method has been used for young normal learners both in native and non-native contexts and the results of the studies have shown that it is a successful method. The purpose in this section is to investigate the effectiveness of this method in teaching literacy to learners with intellectual disabilities which Down syndrome is one of the examples. In this section studies that have used this approach for learners with Down syndrome, are presented and the researcher concludes this part with her own attitude regarding to choosing this method for her participants in the current study. Goetz et al.
These features can be obtained from spectrogram of the speech signal which is call as short term spectral features. Formants are one of the important features used in speech recognition. Peaks denote dominant frequency components in speech signal. Formants are the peaks of the spectral envelope. The resonance frequency also called formants are inversely proportional to the vocal tract length.
2.2.1 Body size The most obvious influence on pitch that comes to mind is the size of the sound producing apparatus; we can observe from the instruments of the orchestra that smaller objects tend to make higher-pitched sounds, and larger ones produce lower-pitched sounds. Therefore, it is logical to assume that small people would make high sounds, and large people would make low sounds. And this assumption is borne out by the facts, at least to an extent. Baby cries have a fundamental frequency (referred to as f0) of around 500 Hz. Child speech ranges from 250-400 Hz, adult females tend to speak at around 200 Hz on average and adult males around 125 Hz.