Biopsychosocial Model

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Introduction
Alcoholism is a disorder that suggests both physical and mental dependence on alcohol. Similar to any other addiction, it involves a continuous usage of such substances despite the negative consequences embedded to them. A heavy drinker is also most likely to suffer from withdrawal symptoms upon quitting In this review, three models of alcoholism will be explored: biopsychosocial, cognitive-behavioural therapy and transtheoretical model respectively. The element of the biopsychosocial model is applied to the other two models for further understanding.
Biopsychosocial Model The biopsychosocial model offered a holistic alternative to the biomedical mode, attending simultaneously to the biological, psychological, and social dimensions
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This is because alcohol is used in an effort to regulate the quality of affective emotional state. It works by either enhancing positive emotions or reducing negative emotions or that it can be applied in both ways. There is an association between depression and alcoholism although not necessarily biologically. The level of anxiety that is implicated in this case has inconsistency in findings (Steele & Josephs, 1988). Sometimes it is reduced (e.g., Sher & Levenson, 1982), sometimes it is increased (e.g., Ewing & McCarty, 1983) and the other times it has no effect on anxiety (e.g., Thyer & Curtis, 1984). Psychological and physiological dependence of alcoholic beverages is ultimately fostered, lacking in ways of adaptive coping. Strongly motivated drinkers in such reliance situations, as a result, drink a heavier dosage more often can be at a higher risk for alcohol addictions. Drinking psychologically distinct based on the different underlying functions they serve (Cooper, Frone, Russell & Mudar, 1995). This displays the presence of psychological factors in…show more content…
Five stages have been consistently identified across behavioural patterns. One can either be in procontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action or in maintenance level. The precontemplation stage suggests that individuals do not want to make a change. Possible reasoning include the delusion that there is a problem, unaware of the risks taken in suggestive health-declining behaviours and the avoidance of the persisting issue. The contemplation stage suggests that the individual realizes the existence of a problem but does not want to commit to take action. This puts them in a dilemma contemplating to make chance happen but has plans to do so. The preparation stage suggests the intention to change behavior and have somewhat created an outline to act on desired change. The action stage suggests individuals committing themselves to modify lifestyle and get rid of the negative behavior. The maintenance stage suggests maintaining health-enhancing, health-comprising behaviors and working on prevention of relapse (DiClemente, Schlundt & Gemmell,

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