Biosensor Literature Review

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Literature Review

2.1 Biosensor

Biosensor is an analytical device used to convert biological respons into an electric signal. It involves the biological components such as microbes, enzyme, antibodies and DNA. In this case, enzyme utilize in the biological respons determine the biocatalytic activity in the process of converting enzyme-substrate into product. This typical biosensor usually have enzyme immobilized on the support system which attached to an electrode. Generally, biosensor consist of three phases which are receptor phase, transducer phase and signal amplifier phase. The enzyme recognized the specific substrate as the bioreceptor. It transfers the signal to transducer and give out signal interpretation, then the signal
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The example of conductive materials of carbon-based matrices are glassy carbon, graphite and nano-carbon or mixture of the element which have the electrical conductivity properties. The other material composed of insulator components group such as epoxy resin, silicone, polyurethane, metacrylate resin, Teflon and others. The insulator components are used to maintain the durability and resistance to electrical current toward the working medium (Alhadeff and Bojorge, 2011). Generally, biosensor used three-electrode system include working electode, auxillary electrode and reference electrode. Electrode which acts as auxillary platinum cathode undergoes reduction process where oxygen is reduced while Ag/AgCl works as reference electrode. Both electrode which covered with oxygen-permeable plastic membrane such as Teflon or polytetrafluoroethylene then dip into a solution containing electrolyte, saturated potassium chloride (Debnath,…show more content…
Potential voltage applied to the electrode produce current signal. Working electrode will monitor the flow of current in electrochemical measurement. The system include electrodes which usually made up of inert metal silver and platinum while the solvent composed of water salt and mediator that allow the electrolyte dissolve and help the flow of current. Typically, electrochemical inert salt used are NaCl or KCl. The usual mediator being used is potassium hexacyanoferrate. This mediator initiates the flow current in electrochemical system and also known act as an oxidants (Pam et al.,

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