1998) of the parasitic cells. The quinine group of ubiquone gets reduced to the quinol and helps in transferring the electron through an oxidation reduction cycle (Tielens A G M and Hellemond J J V 1998; Kroger A. and Gwith M K 1973). Atovaquone too has a quinine group and thus, it can mimic ubiquone and binds selectively to the Q0 site of parasitic mitochondria thereby block the parasitic mitochondrial respiration (Ridley R G 2002). In the present study, we report binding characteristics of trans and cis-isomers of atovaquone with cytochrome bc1 of yeast using docking technique in order to address the basic question, why trans isomer of atovaquone has much higher drug potency than that of its cis isomer? Recently, Hunte et al reported ( Hunte et al.
(2011). Crohn’s disease: Evidence for involvement of unregulated transcytosis in disease etio-pathogenesis. World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG, 17(11), 1416–1426. doi:10.3748/wjg.v17.i11.1416 Liang, L., Shen, H., De Camilli, P., & Duncan, J. S. (2010). Tracking Clathrin Coated Pits with a Multiple Hypothesis Based Method⋆.
Potential of Dillenia philippinensis Rolfe Leaf Ethanolic Extract to Arrest Angiogenesis in Chorioallantoic Membrane of Duck Embryos* Julius Czar F. Baguio1 Abstract – Angiogenesis involves the formation of new blood vessels. However, an imbalance in angiogenesis may lead to cancer growth and development. Bioactive compounds present in plants is being scrutinized as a source of anti-cancer drug. In this study, the potential of the Philippine native plant, Dillenia philippinensis to arrest angiogenesis was examined using chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. Fresh leaves of D. philippinensis were dried and subjected to extraction using 95% (1:5 v/v) ethanol.
Dosage Form Test Microorganisms Testing Days Antimicrobial Components Antiseptic mouth wash solution S. aureus* >3.40 >3.40 Hexetidine and Ethanol 96% E. coli* >3.00 >3.00 P. aeruginosa* >3.30 >3.30 B. cepacia*,ψ >3.07 >3.07 C. albicans* >3.70 >3.70 A. brasiliensis 0.25 1.50 * = Microorganisms that have not been recovered at any stage of the test from the recovery medium. ψ = Non-pharmacopeial, water-borne isolate was included in the study of the products from facilities from which this microorganism was
Antibacterial activity of marine sponges The sponge Aurora globostellata was found to have antibacterial activity against Vibrio cholarae, Klebsiella pnemoniae, Salmonella typhi, Candida albicans, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the biological activity has been tested with the crude extract and the inhibition zone observed with the crude extract were (12.66±0.66 mm) for Candida albicans, (14.00±0.57) for Salmonella typhi (K.Chairman et al., 2012). The strains of different fouling bacteria namely, Pseudomonas chlororaphis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis, Pseudomonas putida , Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus cereus were tested against different marine sponges for antibacterial activity with the crude extract. The sponge Oceanapia fistulosa and Fasciospongia cavernosa showed high inhibition zone against the strains, whereas the sponge Aurora globostellata was found to be with low activity when compared with other sponge types (Limna Mol VP et al., 2010). The sponge Callyspongia subarmegera found in the south coast of India taxonomically identified using spicules arrangement and taxonomic keys by Dr.P.A.Thomas and the partial DNA sequence of the sponge has been submitted to GenBank. The sponge has been extracted with methanol and tested for antibacterial activity against fish pathogens, and the extract was found to inhibit bacterial growth (Aishwarya MS et al.,
An average daily dose of silymarin (420 mg/day for 41 months) was found to be non-toxic, relative to placebo, in clinical trials1. Taxifolin , silychristin, isosilychristin, and Silydianin, did not show cytotoxicity at 100 mM. Isosilybin B, which showed the highest potential as an antiproliferative agent against human prostate carcinoma cells, was toxic to cells above 10 mM9. Neither milk thistle nor silymarin are listed in the EPA's Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Inventory. No studies or case reports investigating the association of exposure to milk thistle extract and cancer risks in humans were identified in the available literature12.
The third method is stab culture. Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis are grown by stabbing vertically into nutrient gelatine in a test tube. Gelatine which contains Escherichia coli remains solid while the gelatine that contains Bacillus subtilis turns into liquid. This shows that Bacillus subtilis produces an enzyme called gelatinase which will turn the solid gelatine into liquid form while Escherichia coli do not produce gelatinase. The last method is plate culture whereby Escherichia coli are grown by streaking on agar plates in Petri dishes.
Maximum zone of inhibition was obtained for E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa than Streptococcus pheumonia. Satyanarayana et al  were studied antibacterial activity of different phytochemical extracts from the leaves of T. procumbens Linn against Staphyclococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabills and Vibrio cholerae. Antibacterial activity of hexane, petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extract obtained from the aeirial parts of T. procumbens was tested against both gram positive (Staphylococeus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and gram negative (Enterobacter aerogenes)using agar well diffusion method, indicated the presence of more active compound in methanol than in hexane extract  Bobbarala et al  studied antifungal activity of whole plant extract against phytopathogenic fungi, Aspergillus niger. The leaf extract of T. procumbens was tested against Fusarium oxysporium f sp.udum. Bultar Var Crotolariae (Kulkarni) pidwick causing seeding blight of Pigeon pea .
RESEARCH PLAN Biofilm Inhibition of Chitosan/Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit Hydrogel Film on Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans and Pseudomnas aeruginosa A. RATIONALE Biofilm is a commonly found multicellular structure in bacteria where cells are attached to each other and embedded in an extracellular polymeric substance (Archer, Mazaitis, Costerton, Leid, Powers and Shirtliff, 2011) making it more resistant to antifungal drugs because of its complex structure and extracellular matrix (ECM) (Fanning and Mitchell, 2012). Also, presence of persister cells shuts down the microbial targets of the antibiotics that leads to chronic disease (Archer et al., 2011). Biofilm is the cause of resistance against antimicrobial agents and it protects cells from the host immune