Gram-staining have performed for Staphylococcus aureus (control); Enterococcus faecalis (control); Nostril microflora in NA, MSA, and PYCa. Gram-staining provides results of the bacteria morphology, type of gram-stain. Catalase test was also done prior to gram-staining. MicrobactTM Biochemical Identification Kit was used for identifying gram-negative aerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria.
By what mechanism do the authors propose that the mcr-1 gene confers colistin resistance, and what evidence do they use to support this assertion? The protein sequence of mcr-1 showed its similarity to the polymyxin-producing bacterium, Paenibacillus spp., which showed the possibility of gene transfer occurring. The mcr-1 gene enables protection from polymyxin. The mechanism that the authors proposed on how the mcr-1 gene confers colistin resistance is that mcr-1 causes a modification in lipid A, present in the lipopolysaccharides of most bacteria, which leads to lessened polymyxin affinity.
Bacterial transformation is important because it allows for the cloning and movement of DNA between strains. This transformation usually occurs within plasmids, which are closed circular molecules made up of double stranded DNA. The function of the plasmid is to provide bacteria with genetic advantages such as antibiotic resistance. In this lab, the plasmids provided the ampicillin resistance and the fluorescence. If the bacterial cells are grown in the presence of the antibiotic ampicillin then only the cells that took up the plasmid have the resistance gene.
4.2 Physical Analysis 4.2.1 Density Test Table 4.1 shows, the samples of undoped calcium phosphate pellets using various sintering temperature. From the experiment, different sintering temperatures are used such as 1000ºC, 1100ºC and 1200ºC. Each sintering temperature have five samples are being used to measure the density of the samples. After analysis, the average density will be collect and recorded.
"INTERCONVERSION OF YEAST MATING TYPES I. DIRECT OBSERVATIONS OF THE ACTION OF THE HOMOTHALLISM (HO) GENE. " MANNEY 1974a,b). In Particular, a Cells (but Not a or A/a Cells Excrete an Oligo- (n.d.): n. pag.Genetics.com. Institute of Molecular Biology and Department of Biology, University of Oregon.
1. Introduction Due to the extensive use of pharmaceutical active compounds (PhACs), a wide range and different of PhAC residues occurs in the aquatic environment. Their fate is potentially a major issue that is yet to be understood .Extensive use of antibiotics for disease prevention, treatment of microbial infections and promotion of animal and plant growth have led to the frequent detection of different antibiotics and their by products in the environment [2,3]. The antibiotics distribution in the environment can increase the resistance of bacteria and subsequently compromise public health by preventing treatment of infections caused with these bacteria ; and this is one of the major challenges for human and veterinary medicine.
ABSTRACT Bacterial conjunctivitis occurs in persons of all races, although differences in frequencies may be reflected by geographical variations of pathogen prevalence. The study was therefore taken up to detect the prevalence of bacterial and fungal pathogens causing occular infections and to study their antibiotic resistant profiles. A total of 44 kerato-conjunctivitis samples were collected, out of which, 31/44 (73%) were fungal isolates . The prevalence of fungal isolates was as follows- 7 Aspergillus fumigatus (22.5%), 3 Aspergillus flavus (9.67%), 4 Aspergillus nidulans (12.9%), 7 Aspergillus niger (22.5%), 10 Fusarium
Gil-Rodríguez et al. (2008) purified the peroxidase from Japanese radish by several purification steps. The juice extracted from roots of radish was ultra-centrifuged using 10 kDa membrane. The retentate was then loaded on Macro-Prep High-S medium at pH 6.1 and eluted with a linear gradient of 0–1 M NaCl. The eluate was further loaded on Macro-Prep High-Q medium
Once the gel hardened, .5X TBE (44.5 mM Tris base, 44.5 mM boric acid, and 1.0 mM EDTA) was added just until the gel was covered with the TBE buffer. Each sample was loaded into the gel as well as 10 μL of DNA size markers (1kb ladder, New England Biolabs) into a separate lane. The gel was allowed to harden at room temperature and then electrophoresed at 100 volts for 75 minutes. Using a UV imager, a photo was taken of the resulting traveled DNA fragments in the gel.
The dried roots of Inula racemosa were pulverized and sieved with 100 ~ 200 mesh. The herb powder was placed into a glass bottle. Ultrasound-assisted extraction was carried out in an ultrasonic cleaner RK102H (Bandelin sonorex, Germany). The powder of Inula racemosa was extracted three times under the following conditions: the ratio of material to solvent was 10:1, undergoing ultrasonic treatment 30 minutes at 25 °C, 100 kHz /450 W.31 Before large extraction, a small-scale extraction experiments were carried out: 95% ethanol and ethyl acetate as the extractive solutions was investigated, respectively.
The purpose of the “Titration of the Unknown Acid” lab is to determine how much of a given material known as concentration is in a substance or mixture. In this lab, the student also learns the technique of using titration. The concentration of the acid we used in class will be sampled with a standardize solution such as sodium hydroxide with an environmentally indicator to show the physical change of color that occurs to the solution by the acid. The equipment necessary for the titration experiment follows: 0.1M NaOH, Acid solution, Anthocyanin (which is found in red cabbage leaves) indicator, Burets, Ethanol 95% and DI water. First Professor Greenberg assign a labeled unknown acid solution, then we recorded the solution’s identity and bottle code.
The group hypothesized that if worms in a bottle had dirt, compost, oxygen, and a good environment they would survive, reproduce, and improve soil. The groups hypothesis was partially supported by this experiment. For one, most worms did not survive. By the end of the experiment 5 worms remained although the group started out with 27.
PHAR 100 Assignment 3 1. Antibiotics are a form of medicine that seek out and destroy the bacteria that make us feel sick. Antibiotics work great against bacteria, however they don’t work against viruses. Penicillin was the first antibiotic to be discovered by Alexander Fleming, and it was first used to treat infections. Essentially, these powerful medicines fight bacterial infections, and have the potential to save lives.