Biosurfactants Case Study

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2.1.3 Application of biosurfactants Biosurfactants are important in petroleum, environmental, food, agricultural, bioprocessing, cosmetics and biological industries (Fakruddin, 2012; Nitschke & Costa, 2007; A. Singh et al., 2007). Table 2.2 shows the role of biosurfactants in different industries (A. Singh et al., 2007). Table 2.2 : The role of biosurfactants in various industries 2.2 Actinomycetes 2.2.1 Properties of actinomycetes Actinomycetes are the intermediate group between bacteria and fungi (Bagyaraj & Rangaswami, 2007; Rastogi, 1997). Their morphology resembles fungi while their physiology resemble bacteria. This is because their hyphae is similar to fungi, and their width of the mycelium is quite similar to the width of bacterial…show more content…
According to Arifuzzaman et al. (2010), the morphology of actinomycetes can be observed as convex, concave or flat surface. Besides that, the colour of actinomycetes colonies in the agar plate ranging from dark grey, grey, dark brown, brownish, whitish and yellowish white (Jeffrey, 2008). According to Whitaker (1992), the morphology of actinomycetes in submerged culture can be in two forms which are the disperse mycelium or pellet depends on the concentration of its viable spores in the inoculum. A disperse or filamentous mycelia may occur when the concentration of viable spores in the inoculum is high, while pellet formation occurs when the concentration of viable spores in the inoculum is low. However, disperse mycelium is desirable in recent studies because this form of growth is more homogeneous compared to mycelium packed in pellet form. In addition, disperse mycelium form which is not deprived of oxygen and nutrients is required for industrial fermentation (Whitaker,

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