1. Introduction Biosurfactants or microbial surfactants are the diverse group of surface active substances synthesized from microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi and yeast or excreted extracellularly ‘Kaur et al. (2012). Like conventional chemical based synthetic surfactants, biosurfactants have ability to reduce surface tension of solution, lower the interfacial tension between two liquids, allow easier spreading, and thereby enhance surface active properties ‘Nitschkea and costab (2007). Commonly, biosurfactants are neutral or anionic in nature.
(a)miscelles , (b)liposomes , (c) lipid bilayer Due to their amphiphilic structure, biosurfactants increase the surface area of hydrophobic water-insoluble substances, increase the water bioavailability of such substances and change the properties of the bacterial cell surface. Surface activity makes surfactants excellent emulsifiers, better foaming property, higher selectivity and dispersing agents. They are active at extreme temperatures, pH and salinity as well, and can be produced from industrial wastes and from by-products. 1.3 Classification and Properties of Biosurfactants Biosurfactants are categorized by their chemical composition, molecular weight, physico- chemical properties and mode of action and microbial origin. Most commonly, surfactants are classified according to polar head group.
PRODUCTION OF BIOSURFACTANTS FROM BACILLUS LICHENIFORMIS INTRODUCTION Biosurfactants defined as surface active agents that are produced by a variety group of microorganisms. Biosurfactants reduces the surface tension of hydrocarbons and aqueous mixtures thus causing emulsification. These surface active agents can be produced as secondary metabolites by other microorganisms (El-Sheshtawy et al., 2015). biosurfactants contain either one hydrophilic and one hydrophobic part because of their amphiphilic (chemical compound that contains hydrophilic and lipophilic properties)character biosurfactants are characterised as either cationic, aniomic and zwitterion Biosurfactants(Kosaric and Vardar-Sukan, n.d.). Biosurfactants combines the interfaces between fluids of different polarities, thus reducing the surface tension.Biosurfactants are
Bioplastics are natural biopolymers including chemically unrelated products that are synthesized and catabolized by various organisms during unbalanced growth. Currently, different types of biodegradable polymers are being studied for different applications including polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), polylactide (PLA), poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), poly(p-dioxanone) (PPDO) and poly(butylene succinate) (PBS). The most extensively produced microbial bioplastics are polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) and their derivatives., discovered at the beginning of the 20th century by Lemoigne. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are polyesters of various hydroxyalkanoates, synthesized by many bacteria as inclusion bodies, which are lipid in nature. PHAs extracted from bacterial cells have properties similar to conventional plastics, such as polypropylene.
The inorganic and organic substances secreted by these microbes can dissolve the metals into aqueous media. Commonly used acidophilic bacteria for bioleaching application includes, Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, Leptospirillum ferrooxidans, Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans and Sulfolobus sp. Also, fungal species such as Aspergillus niger and Penicillium sp. have been proven for their potentiality towards bioleaching (Mishra
Microbial flora and fauna are an attractive source of new therapeutic candidate compounds. In the past decades, the increasing needs for drugs to control new illness or resistant strains of microorganisms stimulated to look for unconventional new sources of bioactive metabolites. The use of microorganisms for the production of commercially vital metabolites has increased rapidly over the
Bio lubricants are employed to various degrees with the hope of minimizing the life cycle environmental impacts compared to mineral based lubricants. Future green processes are designed to use agricultural resources as feedstocks and green chemistry for product manufacture by NRCBIP (1999). Approximately 50 percent of all traditional lubricants are released into the surroundings throughout use, spills, and discarding leads to situation that could be reduced with the use of bio lubricants. During last decade India has maintained a elevated growth rate in accepting the improved technological challenges in worldwide development. According to the 2001 world commercial energy demand which was 03.50%, India stood in sixth position.
As an alternative to antibiotic therapy, probitotics has been gaining popularity in aquaculture farms. Microbiome balance is key factor to maintain overall health in fish (Gomez and Balcazar,2008). Various process like nutrient digestion, synthesis, absorption, pathogen resistance, growth, sexual maturation, morphogenesis, survivorship in stocked fish, etc can be achieved by microbiome manipulation (Martin et.al, 2014). Although there has been several definitions for probiotics, currently everyone uses the definition propsed by World Health Organization as “Probiotics are live microorganisms that, when administrated in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host” (Reid et al., 2003). Several criteria are to be followed to choose a microorganism as a probiont.
The fermentation does not require external electron acceptors because the organic contaminant serves as both an electron donor and an electron acceptor. Through a series of internal microorganism-mediated electron transfers, the organic contaminant is converted into harmless compounds known as fermentation products. Examples of fermentation products are acetate, propionate, ethanol, hydrogen and carbon dioxide. Fermentation products can be biodegraded by other species of bacteria, eventually turning them into carbon dioxide, methane and water. In some cases, microorganisms can transform contaminants even if the transformation reaction produces little or no benefit to the cell.
Presently specialists at the Fraunhofer Institute for Interfacial Engineering and Biotechnology IGB are taking an alternate methodology: they are assembling surfactants utilizing biotechnological techniques, with the aid of organisms and microbes. "We create bio surfactants microbially, taking into account manageable assets, for example, sugar and plant oil," says Suzanne Zibek, a specialized scientist and designer at the IGB in Stuttgart. The researcher and her group use cellobiose lipids (CL) and mannosy- lerythritol lipids (MEL) in light of the fact that testing has demonstrated these to be guaranteeing and effective enough for modern application. They are delivered in expansive amounts by specific sorts of filth organism, the kind that can influence corn plants.an included profit is