CASEIN AND CASEINATE The skim milk is a by-product obtained during manufacturing of cream. It is rich in solid-non-fat content and has high nutritional value. In dairy plants, it is mostly utilized either in standardization for the manufacturing of main products or preserved by removing moisture in spray dried form. Casein is the principal protein found in cow milk from which it has been extracted commercially for most of the 20th century. It is responsible for the white, opaque appearance of milk in which it is combined with calcium and phosphorus as clusters of casein molecules, called micelles.
Abstract: Escherichia coli (E. coli) is currently one of the most predominant human food-borne pathogens. In the dairy industry, recently, attention has been drawn to the potential use of bacteriophages (phages) to control bacteria in dairy products. In this study, a cocktail of three Escherichia coli bacteriophages (EcoM-AG2, EcoM-AG3 and EcoM-AG10) was tested to evaluate its ability to control Escherichia coli O126:H7 in experimentally contaminated skim milk. In Tryptic Soy Broth (TSB), there was an E. coli growth suppression of 1.8, 5.7 and 8.9 logs in phage treatments compared to controls over 8 days, at 4, 10 and 25°C, respectively. While in skim milk, the phage cocktail reduced E. coli populations by 1.2, 1.0 and 8.3 log compared to control samples over 15
Psychrotrophs and Milk Quality Introduction Psychrotrophic bacteria are bacteria that are capable of surviving in a cold environment which are not usually ideal bacterial conditions. They also provide an estimation of shelf life and are largely responsible for the spoilage of refrigerated foods. The most common psychrotrophic bacteria are in the genus Pseudomonas. The psychotrophic bacteria isolated from milk are Gram-positive or Gram-negative. Bacteria and other microorganisms may enter milk from an udder infection in a cow, from the environment around us, or from unsanitary conditions in the milking process.
Gastric chief cells also secrete gastric lipase which continue the digestion of triglycerides into diglycerides, monoglyceride and free fatty acids. The lipase catalyzed hydrolysis of milk triglycerides into free fatty acids, monoglycerides and glycerol is essential for eﬃcient absorption of the fat by enterocytes. The stomach churns the milk, and the milk leaves the stomach as liquid called chyme. The chyme passes through the pyloric sphincter and into the duodenum of the small intestine. When chyme enters the duodenum, the duodenum secretes the hormone cholecystokinin.
Yogurt is a fermented milk product that contains the bacterial cultures such as Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. All yogurt must contain at least 8.25% solids not fat. Full fat yogurt must contain not less than 3.25% milk fat, low fat yogurt not more than 2% milk fat, and non fat yogurt less than 0.5% milk. Milk is the main ingredient in yogurt. The type of milk used depends on the type of yogurt – whole milk for full fat yogurt, low fat milk for low fat yogurt, and skim milk for non fat yogurt.
(BIONET) 2. The copies of the gene is made, this is called PCR. (BIONET) 3. Then the plant is “transformed” by three possible ways: soil bacteria, using a gene gun, or protoplast (preventing the DNA from entering the cell). (BIONET) 4.
Aims: Learn to dialyse milk in a cellulose dialysis bag and test the external dialysate for some of components of milk such as protein, reducing sugar, chloride ion and more. Material and method: Refer to BCH203/303/3203 Laboratory Manual January 2016 session, page 39 and page 40. Test Colour Solution Negative Control Positive control Precipitate for solution Precipitate for negative control Precipitate for positive control Biuret * colourless Colourless colourless Light blue Light blue
• Investigating the Stop Time of the Bull in the Sperm collection room on the Quality of Sperm. • The effect of linseed meal on fresh and post-thaw quality of Holstein bulls. • Estimation of Genetic Parameters of Najdi Breed Growth Traits. ________________________________________ Training: Alta Genetic Company. • Measurement, monitoring and management of Bovine semen
1. Technology map 1.1. Description of the technology In-vitro meat (also known as cultured meat or animal-free meat) is an innovation based on the idea of manufacturing meat products by applying tissue-engineering technology. The process consists of extracting starter cells of animal origin and growing them artificially in a synthetic culture media through self-organization or scaffolding techniques (Futurefood.org, 2015). The whole procedure takes place inside a bioreactor, where parameters such as temperature and mechanical/electrical stimuli are controlled to facilitate the production of meat tissues.
Abstract : Milk fat plays a key role in determining various factors in wide range of dairy products. These milk fat mainly comprises mainly of Triacylglycerols (TAG’s) which constitutes to 98% of lipids present in milk (Walstra and Jenness 1984). Knowing the Fatty acids (FA) distribution within milk fat triacylglycerols (TAG’s), in depth understanding of TAG structures in relationship with milk FA profile could further increase the knowledge of milk fat synthesis. Genetic and dietary factors are the two main issues that influence the Triacylglycerol profile. This study determines the TAG profile and differences of individual cows of specific genetic variances which are provided with different diets and anlysed using MALDI-TOF.